Doppelkopf is a card game for four people. But there are also variations for three to seven players. Not much is known about the history of the game. Doppelkopf probably originated from the Schafkopfspiel , which had a set of rules since 1895. After all, the double headed leaf consists of two short sheep's head leaves. The game has some similarities with the game of Skat , which is believed to have originated from the game of sheep's head.
Doppelkopf is particularly popular in many regions of northern Germany , although the rules of the game vary from region to region. There are many variations and special rules so that it can be difficult to agree on the rules used before each game if the players involved do not yet know each other. The German Doppelkopf-Verband (DDV) has therefore been trying to standardize the rules since its foundation on March 27, 1982 as part of the 1st German Championship in Braunschweig. Unless otherwise stated, the notation and the rules presented in this article are based on the tournament rules of the DDV.
Double head sheet
|French leaf colors|
|Colors of the German paper|
The double head sheet consists of 24 double playing cards , a total of 48 cards. These are divided into four colors with six duplicate cards each, which have their own counting value (also called eyes ) regardless of the color .
|french leaf||German sheet|
The tournament rules of the DDV speak of the colors of clubs , spades , hearts and diamonds , each with two cards ace (11 eyes), ten (10 eyes), king (4 eyes), queen (3 eyes), jack (2 eyes) and Nine (0 eyes) and are based on the French newspaper, which is more widespread in Germany today .
However, many double-headed players prefer the German hand , with the colors acorn , green (often also called foliage , leaf , grass or shovel ), red (often also called heart ) and bells (often also called Bolle ) and the ace of cards (often also called Daus called), ten , king , upper , lower and nine . The choice of hand has no influence on the game, as the colors and cards correspond to each other in the order mentioned.
Since all cards appear twice, there are 60 eyes in each color, for a total of 240 eyes in the entire double headed sheet.
If no special double-headed hand is available, two Skat reeds can be combined, from which the sevens and eights are sorted out.
A double head round consists of several games. According to the rules of the tournament, the number of games is set at 24 for Doppelkopf. When it comes to recreational games, you usually follow the preferences of the individual players. As a rule, however, a number of games divisible by four is required so that each player is both dealer and player equally often.
A game begins with the dealer shuffling the cards. Then he lets the player to the right of him take off once and places the remaining part of the cards on the removed part. Then, in clockwise order, starting with the player to his left, the dealer deals three cards to each player four times. In total, each player receives twelve cards. In the next game, the dealer's role changes clockwise (there are exceptions to tournaments according to the rules of the tournament, for example if a player plays a compulsory solo, so that the next player sitting in front is not deprived of his right or his obligation to play through the solo ).
How the cards are shuffled, cut and dealt is described in detail in the tournament rules and is intended to prevent cheating (see below ). When withdrawing, at least three cards must be withdrawn and remain in place. In particular, the rules of the tournament also regulate how to proceed if the dealer misses or if cards are unintentionally revealed when dealing. In recreational games, these rules are often not strictly observed, as this creates a more relaxed and relaxed game atmosphere and mistakes in game preparation rarely have a major impact on the actual game.
Next up is the game-finding process. In the case of recreational games, a normal game is usually assumed and a player who wants to play another type of game or has to play based on his cards registers this. The tournament rules stipulate a somewhat more complicated process, which is largely intended to prevent conclusions from being drawn about the cards of the other players, and stipulates which game type has priority if several players want to play a different game type (see below ).
In every game there is a re-party and a contra-party. Each player belongs to one of the two parties. The players of one party play together and receive the same number of points credited or deducted at the end of a game. So it is not only important to play well yourself, but also to work well with your playing partner.
Normally the two players who own the queens of clubs (the so-called old ones , often also the Ollen ) form the re-party and the other two players form the contra-party. In the solo game (see below ) the player playing alone is the re-party, while the other three players form the contra-party. At the latest after the game has been found, each player knows which party he belongs to. The only exception is the so-called wedding , in which a player owns the two old people and is looking for a partner.
A special attraction of the game is that in the normal game a player does not know from the beginning the party affiliation of the other players and as a result he does not know for a while who he is playing with. This only becomes clear in the course of the game and makes working with the player of your own party extremely difficult, especially in the initial phase.
The actual game is divided into twelve tricks . The player to the left of the dealer is the player and plays the first trick by placing a card that he considers suitable face up on the table. In a clockwise direction, the other players do the same until each player has a card on the table. The players have to adhere to certain rules. Depending on the type of game and the card played first in the trick, it is decided who placed the highest card and thus receives all four cards of the trick. He draws them in and puts them face down on a pile in front of him.
Normally only the last trick played may be viewed. The rules of the tournament regulate exactly how the tricks must or may be taken. This is to prevent the clever discarding of the cards from being able to draw conclusions about cards that have already been played. Special tricks that lead to special points may be placed specifically so that they are not forgotten during the game evaluation. As long as the players still have cards in hand, the winner of the previous trick plays the next trick.
During the first tricks it is possible to make announcements that increase the value of the game and enable the individual player to secure more points for his party. Here, too, there is a regulation in the tournament game rules (see below ).
The basic rules according to which cards may be placed do not differ from the rules in Schafkopf or Skat. The cards in each game - depending on the type of game - are divided into trump cards and various false color cards with a certain ranking. The player who has to play the trick is free to decide which card to play. If he plays trump, the other players must also play a trump card if they still have one in hand (so-called serving ). Otherwise, you can play any wrong color card (known as discarding ). If the player who leads the trick plays a wrong color card, the other players must use the same wrong color, provided they have a card of the corresponding wrong color. Otherwise, they either another false color map can discard or with a trump sting . The trick is won by whoever placed the highest trump card. If no one has played trumps, the trick is taken by whoever placed the highest card of the wrong suit played. Since all cards are available twice, it can happen that the highest card was played twice in the trick. In this case, the player who played the card first takes the trick.
Normally a game is played to the end. However, there may be times when a player knows he is taking the remaining tricks. Then he can reveal his cards and withdraw the remaining cards from the other players. The tournament game rules regulate this process precisely (see below ) in order to prevent other players from being disadvantaged if they could still receive special points. For example, only a solo player is allowed to use the abbreviation there.
In the game evaluation, each party counts the eyes of their tricks. The party that has more eyes in their tricks won the game. Through announcements, a victory can also require more or fewer eyes. Depending on the number of eyes, the winning party receives more or fewer points. Additional points can then be added or deducted through special rules. There are many different ways to rate a game. The calculation of the points and the number of pips required to win the game (depending on the announcements) are also specified in the tournament rules (see below ).
|Trump ranking (descending to the right)|
|♣ D | ♠ D | ♥ D | ♦ D | ♣ B | ♠ B | ♥ B | ♦ B | ♦ A | ♦ 10 | ♦ K | ♦ 9|
|Wrong color ranking (descending to the right)|
|♣ A | ♣ 10 | ♣ K | ♣ 9||♠ A | ♠ 10 | ♠ K | ♠ 9||♥ A | ♥ 10 | ♥ K | ♥ 9|
In the simplest variant of the normal game, the queens form the highest trump cards, followed by the jacks, each with the rankings of clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds. The remaining diamonds in the order of ace, ten, king, and nine form the lowest trumps. Depending on their suit, all remaining cards form the wrong suits of clubs, spades and hearts, each with the same ranking as ace, ten, king and nine.
In the normal game, the two people who have the queens of clubs, i.e. the highest trumps, play together.
The normal game is usually supplemented by special rules that modify the trumps and wrong suits or allow special points. In particular, the game with Dullen (10 of hearts as the highest trump) is so widespread that many players consider it the normal variant.
There may be times when a player owns the two elders (i.e. the queens of clubs) after the deal . In this case he can either announce a so-called wedding or secretly play alone ( silent solo ) while the game is being found .
There are many different variants according to which when a wedding is announced it is decided who will play with the player who owns both olds . Frequent variations allow the player to wish for certain cards or tricks. Whoever plays the named card first or who gets the trick of the named kind first plays with the player who announced the wedding . Sometimes it can happen that no one gets a trick of the type mentioned, so that the player then has to play alone with the two old ones (mostly unintentionally). The tournament game rules use a much simpler form here, which allows conformity to the possible announcements during the first tricks (see below ).
In addition to the normal game, there are solo games in which one player plays alone against the other three. The only end of the game is the re-party and the other three players form the contra-party.
As a rule, the trumps and wrong suits as well as their order change in a solo. There are different types of solos. The same types of solos are given different regional names. Conversely, the same name for solos means different regional variations. The rules of the tournament clearly define the name and possible variants (see below ).
As a rule, at least eight tricks are required, with nine tricks a solo is won with a relatively high probability. When playing without nines (see below ), at least six tricks are usually required. There is a high probability that a solo will be won by seven tricks.
Sometimes there are several players who want to play a solo game. Which solo game is then played depends on the established ranking for solo games or the seating position of the players.
It can be agreed that the solo player may always play the first card, which means that he receives the right to play. In these cases it is often agreed that the dealer will give the next game again.
Two aspects make the double-headed game particularly challenging. On the one hand, it is a partner game , and good cooperation between the partners is essential for success. On the other hand, the other players have to deal with the uncertainty of who the partner is and how the cards are distributed. The rules of the DDV emphasize the quality of the partner game. They facilitate game strategies that challenge cooperation.
Rules that increase uncertainty are, for example: Second dulle tricks first, knocking instead of announcements, game without nines and gangs. There are also rules that are intended to alleviate particular hardships in the distribution of cards, for example poverty, meddling and piggy.
Rules of the game according to the tournament rules of the DDV
Special rules for the normal game according to the tournament game rules
For the normal game, the tournament game rules essentially know four special rules that change the normal game explained above. One of these rules varies the trumps and off-suits. The other three rules refer to possible bonus points.
Play with Dullen
|Play with Dullen|
|Trump ranking (descending to the right)|
|♥ 10 | ♣ D | ♠ D | ♥ D | ♦ D | ♣ B | ♠ B | ♥ B | ♦ B | ♦ A | ♦ 10 | ♦ K | ♦ 9|
|Wrong color ranking (descending to the right)|
|♥ A | ♥ K | ♥ 9||♠ A | ♠ 10 | ♠ K | ♠ 9||♣ A | ♣ 10 | ♣ K | ♣ 9|
In this variant, the tens of hearts become the highest trump card in the game. Often these cards are then Dullen (locally even stollen , Tullen , crabs , knives or murderers called). The tournament rules only speak of the tens of hearts. This variant is so common that it is usually not regarded as a special rule.
By using the tens of hearts as dulls, the wrong suit heart in the normal game only consists of 6 instead of 8 cards. Therefore, the probability is greater that this wrong color will be engraved.
The rules of the tournament explicitly state that - as with all other cards - the first dulle has priority over the second dulle. The reverse rule, where the second dulle wins the first dulle, is a common variation, but it is excluded from the rules of the tournament.
An equally widespread variant is the possibility of collecting special points by making stitches that contain at least 40 eyes, so-called double heads (locally also bold ). Such a stitch contains only solids , i.e. H. Aces or tens of any color. According to the rules of the tournament, there is a special point for the party that got the trick.
Little Karl Müller
Also widespread is the possibility of receiving a special point if the last trick is taken with the jack of clubs, which is often called Karlchen Müller ( Karlchen or Charlie for short , regionally also Mäxchen ). This leads to the situation that many players keep precisely this card for as long as possible and try to get rid of higher cards beforehand. Often the queen of diamonds is kept in hand for as long as possible in order to catch such a trick. In this case there is also the variant that a captured Karl gives a special point.
The fox is the ace of diamonds, i.e. the trump with the highest number. If a party succeeds in stealing this card from the opposing party in one trick (so-called catching a fox ), it receives a special point. Since all cards are in play twice, it is of course also possible to catch two foxes and thus get two special points. It can also happen that the parties catch each other's foxes and thus cancel the special points again.
Wedding according to the tournament rules
At the wedding according to the rules of the tournament, the owner of the two elders always plays with the one of the remaining players who takes the first trick ( the first stranger ). If the player holding the old two wins the first three tricks, he must play alone. As a rule, however, in this case he has a relatively good chance of winning, as he has at least three tricks, which usually bring many eyes. Otherwise, since he is on the lead for the third trick, it should be relatively easy for him to play a card that ensures that he does not get the third trick.
At a wedding the throat, which clarifies who interacts with whom, will also Proposal trick called. This is the third trick at the latest. In the case of weddings, announcements may only be made after the clarification trick, which is why the announcement and cancellation times are postponed according to the tournament rules.
However, this rule is controversial, as it means a clear advantage for the wedding couple. If it comes to a clarification only in the third trick, both can have already won 60 to 90 points, a re at this late point would be without risk. This is why a different rule is mostly followed these days: Re or Contra must be announced at the same time as in a normal game. If, in the further course of the game, Kontra forms a team with the Re player, his Kontra is converted into a Re.
Just like in a normal round, the wedding couple only won when 121 points were reached.
Solos according to the tournament rules
The tournament rules differentiate between compulsory and pleasure solos, on the one hand, and five types of solos: color solo, ladies' solo, boy solo, meatless and "normal" solo.
According to the tournament rules, a double-headed round consists of 24 games. Every player is obliged to play a compulsory solo within a round. In this case, the solo player must play for the first trick. If the number of pending games is equal to the number of pending compulsory solos, the person who still has to play a compulsory solo and is next to the dealer to the left must play his or her compulsory solo. In this case it is also referred to as a demonstration .
The compulsory solo must not be taken from a player who is being demonstrated. If necessary, he must also give his own demonstration if it is his turn as the donor. If a compulsory solo is played, the dealer plays the next game again, unless it is a demonstration. Any type of solo permitted according to the tournament rules can be played as a compulsory solo.
If a player has already played his compulsory solo, he may play a pleasure solo. Here, too, all solo types permitted by the tournament rules are allowed. However, the right and the duty to play the first trick remains with the player to the left of the dealer. Only compulsory solos have priority over pleasure solos.
|Trump ranking (descending to the right)|
|♥ 10 | ♣ D | ♠ D | ♥ D | ♦ D | ♣ B | ♠ B | ♥ B | ♦ B | ♥ A | ♥ K | ♥ 9|
|Wrong color ranking (descending to the right)|
|♣ A | ♣ 10 | ♣ K | ♣ 9||♠ A | ♠ 10 | ♠ K | ♠ 9||♦ A | ♦ 10 | ♦ K | ♦ 9|
The color solo is divided into four variants. Any of the four colors of clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds can be chosen as a trump suit. Accordingly, the solos are then used as cross , Spades , Hearts or Karosolo referred. If the German hand is used, the solos are of course named after the colors of the German hand.
Compared to the normal game, the cards ace, ten (except for the solo of hearts), king and nine in the chosen suit replace the ace, ten, king and nine in the suit of diamonds.
In diamond solos, the ranking of the cards is the same as in the normal game. Some players also refer to this constellation as the trump solo . In the heart solo there are fewer trumps than in the other variants, since the dulls remain the highest trumps.
In some regions the dulls are shifted according to the color solo, so that the color of the dulls is always the short color. For example, in the case of the heart solo the dulls are the two tens of spades and in the case of the club solo the two diamond tens.
Ladies solo and boy solo
|Ladies solo||Boy solo|
|Trump ranking||Trump ranking|
|♣ D | ♠ D | ♥ D | ♦ D||♣ B | ♠ B | ♥ B | ♦ B|
|Wrong color ranking||Wrong color ranking|
|Diamonds||♦ A | ♦ 10 | ♦ K | ♦ B | ♦ 9||Diamonds||♦ A | ♦ 10 | ♦ K | ♦ D | ♦ 9|
|heart||♥ A | ♥ 10 | ♥ K | ♥ B | ♥ 9||heart||♥ A | ♥ 10 | ♥ K | ♥ D | ♥ 9|
|Spades||♠ A | ♠ 10 | ♠ K | ♠ B | ♠ 9||Spades||♠ A | ♠ 10 | ♠ K | ♠ D | ♠ 9|
|cross||♣ A | ♣ 10 | ♣ K | ♣ B | ♣ 9||cross||♣ A | ♣ 10 | ♣ K | ♣ D | ♣ 9|
In the women's solo, only the women are trumps, and their rank is retained. The other cards then form the four color categories of diamonds, hearts, spades and clubs according to their color, with the ranking ace, ten, king, jack and possibly nine.
In the women's solo there are 8 trump cards and 40 wrong color cards. If a German reed is used, the solo is called the Obersolo . Since the rules of the tournament are only based on the French hand, this name does not appear there, of course.
The boys 'solo works like the women' s solo, with the difference that only the boys are trumps here. The jack in the wrong suit order is replaced by the queen.
As in the women's solo, there are 8 trump cards and 40 false color cards in the boys' solo. If the German reed is used, the solo is referred to as the sub- solo .
Meatless / Assesolo / False Solo / Naked
|Meatless / Assesolo|
|Wrong color ranking|
|Diamonds||♦ A | ♦ 10 | ♦ K | ♦ D | ♦ B | ♦ 9|
|heart||♥ A | ♥ 10 | ♥ K | ♥ D | ♥ B | ♥ 9|
|Spades||♠ A | ♠ 10 | ♠ K | ♠ D | ♠ B | ♠ 9|
|cross||♣ A | ♣ 10 | ♣ K | ♣ D | ♣ B | ♣ 9|
The so-called meatless Solo (short Meatless , also naked , Headless , Boneless or brain Loser ) there are no trumps. In the four wrong suits of clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds, the ranking of the cards is ace, ten, king, queen, jack, nine. Since there are no trumps here, every trick is a false color trick and cannot be taken. If you play a meatless solo, you should therefore be in the foreground as much as possible, that is, be allowed to play first if you only have a few or not the highest cards of a suit.
This solo is often referred to as an asses solo or bone solo . The tournament rules use the term meatless and give Assesolo as an alternative designation. The name Assesolo is misleading in that the aces are not trumps. Sometimes this solo is also referred to as a pure color solo or a false solo because there are only false colors.
Game preparation according to the tournament rules
A single game begins when the dealer deals the cards. The giving task changes clockwise after each game. An exception occurs when a player plays a compulsory solo. In this case, the dealer re-deals the next game. The reason for this is that in the duty solo, the solo player has the right and the duty to play, which is usually the player to the left of the dealer. Otherwise this could be disadvantaged.
The dealer must shuffle the cards thoroughly. If the cards are punched or leafed through, they must then be shuffled again. The tournament game rules do not specify exactly what is meant by prick , leafing or mixing .
After shuffling, the dealer lets the player to the right of him cut the cards exactly once. This is mandatory and the process must be carried out in such a way that at least three cards remain and at least three cards are withdrawn. The dealer then places the pile of remaining cards on top of the pile of withdrawn cards.
The dealer then deals three cards to each player four times in a clockwise direction, starting with the left neighbor. The front of the cards must not be visible to any player. If a card is revealed when it is dealt, it must be shuffled, withdrawn and dealt, regardless of whether the revealing of the card is the responsibility of the dealer alone or partly.
Each player has to make sure that the dealer gives him the correct number of cards (i.e. 12).
If the giver is not present for a short time, the player to the left of him can take over this task, unless the giver has expressly reserved the right to give. He must deal the cards in the same way as the actual dealer, that is, he first deals three cards to himself.
Likewise, the player to the right of the withdrawer can take over the task of withdrawing if the withdrawer is not present for a short time, unless the withdrawer has expressly reserved this right.
Appeals against immediately apparent inaccuracies in shuffling, drawing and dealing can only be made by a player as long as he has not yet picked up any of his cards. If rule violations can only be recognized while the card is being taken, a complaint can also be made when they are recognized. In this respect, nobody is indirectly obliged to wait until he has received all the cards from the dealer (for example, to wait whether the dealer deals exactly three cards four times).
Game finding according to the tournament rules
In order to determine the type of game, each player is asked after the deal in clockwise direction, starting with the player to the left of the dealer, for reservations . If a player wants to register a solo or a wedding, he must say “Reservation” loud and clear. Otherwise he says "healthy". The registration of a reservation can only be withdrawn if the next player has not yet commented on the reservation, or if a card has been played or an announcement has been made (see below ). Otherwise the player in question may have to play a solo unintentionally.
A normal game is played when all players report "healthy". Otherwise, in turn, all players who have made a reservation will be asked for a compulsory solo. The query ends when a player reports a compulsory solo. In this case, this player has to name his compulsory solo, which is then played. If no player reports a compulsory solo, the request for a pleasure solo follows the same principle. The player who sits furthest forward must then name it and play it. If no player reports a pleasure solo, only one player can have a reservation with the aim of announcing a wedding. Nevertheless, he still has to baptize his reservation with loud and clear announcements of "wedding".
A player can immediately name his reservation if he is certain that his reservation is of the highest order. In this case, it doesn't have to be his turn. The first trick can then be played immediately without completing the reservation question. Other players may then neither register a reservation nor name it.
During a demonstration, it is clear which player has to play a compulsory solo. Therefore, no question of reservation will be carried out in such a case. The player concerned only has to name his solo.
Announcements according to the tournament rules
During the first tricks, the players have the opportunity to increase the value of a game and the number of points that can be achieved by announcing and canceling it (see below ) as well as influencing the finding of parties and the game.
Announcements and cancellations
If no wedding is played, all players know which party they belong to. Each player can then announce his affiliation to a party by saying "Re" (if he belongs to the Re party) or "Kontra" (if he belongs to the contra party), on the one hand, and on the other hand can increase the game value as long as he still has 11 cards has on hand. With the announcement of Re or Kontra it is asserted that one's own party will win the game.
In addition, it is possible for the players to tell the opposing party that they will reach a certain number of points. The 240 eyes in the game are divided into different levels, each comprising 30 eyes. By rejecting no 90 , no 60 and no 30, it can be claimed that the other party did not achieve this number. The rejection "black" claims that the opposing party will not win a single trick. For no 90 , no 60 , no 30 or black rejections, the rejecting player must have at least 10, 9, 8 or 7 cards in his hand.
Each of the announcements and cancellations can also be made earlier, but not before the type of game has been clarified.
A cancellation is only permitted after an announcement. It is sufficient if your own party has made the announcement. So it doesn't have to be the same player who made the announcement. However, in case of doubt (i.e. if both parties have made an announcement) the player who refuses must indicate which party he belongs to.
Skipping rejections is only permitted as long as the skipped rejections are still possible. In this sense, it is not possible to indirectly make up for a cancellation at a later point in time than permitted. Both parties have the right to cancel. This can mean that in the end neither party reaches their rejection goal and thus neither party wins the game.
All announcements or cancellations are valid if several players make them at the same time or one after the other. From this passage of the rules of the tournament it can be deduced that a player can also make himself known by an announcement when the other player of his own party has already made an announcement without increasing the game value. However, none of the tournament rules explicitly states that this is permitted or prohibited.
An acceptance or rejection by the other party can always be responded to with one card less than is necessary for the corresponding acceptance or rejection. With Kontra , the reply is against the Re party and with Re the reply is against the Contra party. Cancellations by a responding party are only permitted if the response would also have been made in good time as an announcement. Skipping rejections is also only permitted here as long as the skipped rejections are still possible.
Announcement and cancellation times for a wedding
At a wedding, the party affiliation is only clear after the clarification stitch. An announcement is only allowed here after the clarification trick. The announcement and rejection times are shifted one card backwards if the clarification trick is the second trick and two cards backwards if the clarification trick is the third trick. If the first stitch is the clarification stitch, the announcement and rejection times do not shift.
This regulation is controversial, however, as it is theoretically possible - especially if you are playing without nines (see below ) - to get more than 120 eyes with 3 tricks, so that the game can no longer be lost and therefore re- announced without risk . It is therefore more correct to keep the point in time at which the Re or the Contra must be said. In the event that a contra player joins the wedding player in the further course of the game, his contra is then regarded as a re .
Game abbreviation according to the tournament rules
The tournament rules allow a game to be shortened for only one solo player. He can show by revealing his cards that he will take all the tricks. If he does not specify the order in which he plays the cards and does not have the lead, it can be assumed that he takes over with any card or trumps every wrong suit that he does not have.
In the case of an abbreviation, the solo player must indicate the order in which he plays the cards without being asked if he only wins the game in a certain order. It is assumed that he always plays from above in the trump cards as well as in the wrong suit cards, i.e. places the highest-ranking card. He need not assume that he will play trump first unless he states it in the abbreviation.
Conversely, the solo player can also shorten by handing his remaining cards to the opposing party, i.e. the opposing party takes the remaining tricks. Violations of the rules that have occurred previously can no longer be complained about by the solo player. If the announcement and cancellation times have not yet passed, the other party can make up for possible announcements and cancellations.
Game evaluation according to the tournament rules
The Re-party wins the game if it finds at least 121 points in its tricks and has not rejected any of its own. She wins the game with 120 eyes even if she has not made an announcement and the contra party has announced contra .
The contra party wins the game with 120 eyes if no announcements or rejections have been made. If only the opposing party makes an announcement without making a rejection, it needs 121 eyes to win.
Both parties have to reach at least 151, 181 or 211 points in order to win if they refused the opposing party a 90 , 60 or 30 respectively. If the opposing party was canceled in black , they may not get any tricks. Has not bound by rejection of the other party to a higher spot number one party, and you meet 90, 60 or 30 eyes when the counterparty her no 90 , no 60 or no 30 has been canceled. A party wins with the first trick if it did not reject it and the other party rejected it in black .
If both parties do not achieve their canceled goal, neither party has won. In this case, certain additional points (see below ) will not be awarded.
The game values of the individual games are expressed in points, which are awarded according to the plus-minus rating. This means that the players of the winning party get the points written down with a positive sign, while the players of the losing party get the points written down with a negative sign. It should be noted that the winning party can still get points deducted through special points, while the losing party is credited with points (the game value itself is then negative). In a solo game, the solo player's score is tripled.
The plus-minus rating makes it easy to check. On the one hand, the sum of the scores for all players must be zero after each game. On the other hand, all players must have an even or all players an odd number of points, provided that no penalty points have been awarded in favor of a solo player.
For a game won, the base value is one point. If the losing party is also played under 90, 60, 30 or black, the winning party receives an additional point. If there is no winner, only the additional points will be given to the party that played the other party under 90, 60 or 30 respectively.
If the re or contra is announced, two additional points will be awarded to the winning party. If there is no winner, these points expire. If the winning party of the losing party has not canceled 90 , 60 , 30 or black , they will each receive an additional point.
If the winning party reaches 120, 90, 60 or 30 eyes against a rejection, no 90 , no 60 , no 30 or black , they will each receive an additional point. A party receives these points even if there is no winner, but they have won the corresponding numbers against the corresponding announcements.
Both parties can only win special points in the normal game (incl. Wedding), but not in a solo (incl. Silent wedding). The special points are offset against each other first and then with the remaining points.
The contra party receives an additional point if it wins against the old ones (cross queens). For every double head won, i.e. a trick with 40 or more eyes, the respective party receives a special point. The same applies if a fox (ace of diamonds) of the opposing party is caught or Karlchen (jack of clubs) takes the last trick.
Further content of the tournament game rules
In addition to the actual game, the tournament rules also regulate minor things. This includes determining how the seating position of the individual players is determined, who has to keep the playlist and how it should be checked. The tournament rules limit the playing time of the individual double-headed rounds and state what has to happen after the end of the playing time in the case of mandatory solos that are not played.
It also regulates how violations of the rules are to be punished with penalty points. A rough distinction is made between insignificant , minor and serious rule violations, which have different consequences. Furthermore, the set of rules knows unsportsmanlike conduct , which can lead to a warning, point deduction or disqualification. It also regulates when and in what situations players are entitled to complain.
The tournament game rules also explain deviations and recommendations for playing with five people. The playing time of a game round is increased from 24 to 30 games and from 100 to 125 minutes. The dealer does not play along in this case. It should be noted that with 5 players there is the possibility that in extreme cases one player only plays 21 games, while the others have 24 or 25 games, as the dealer has to give again in the mandatory solo.
The tournament game rules also speak of the possibility of playing with 6 or 7 people, but do not go into how such games should be played.
Frequent game variations
The variants of the double-headed game mentioned here do not correspond to the tournament rules. However, they are often used in private game rounds. Further game variants or special rules are explained in the article Doppelkopf special rules .
Game without nines
|Game without nines (with dulls)|
|Trump ranking (descending to the right)|
|♥ 10 | ♣ D | ♠ D | ♥ D | ♦ D | ♣ B | ♠ B | ♥ B | ♦ B | ♦ A | ♦ 10 | ♦ K|
|Wrong color ranking (ascending to the right)|
|♥ A | ♥ K||♠ A | ♠ 10 | ♠ K||♣ A | ♣ 10 | ♣ K|
A widespread variant is the game without nines (so-called sharp hand or without luschen ). The nines are removed from the game and each player receives only 10 cards (when dealing first 3, then 4 and then again 3 cards). Accordingly, a game then only consists of 10 tricks. The game without nines is the variation that has the greatest influence on tactics and strategy.
The result of removing the nines is that color casts generally go around less often, so that trumps are won more often. On the other hand, a color cast is much more valuable because no luschen (i.e. cards that are not eye-catching) can be placed in it and a color cast is always worth a lot of points. Furthermore, a color can now only go around once.
In combination with dulls, walking around the suit heart is particularly unlikely, as each player must be dealt exactly one of the four cards of this suit or discarding missing cards. Occasionally, therefore, a pure heart attack (cardiac flow) like a double head is rewarded with a special point or leads to a buck round. The absence of the nines in the diamond color has little effect.
Announcements and cancellations are of course now possible with 2 cards less if the variant of the tournament rules is used. In the extreme case of a wedding with clarification in the third trick, the reply to a black with only 2 cards in hand can be made.
Game with two nines
The two nines of hearts remain in the game. The cards are dealt as in Skat (3-4-3). After the first three cards, two cards are placed on a stick in the middle of the table. Now the players can bid for a stick with one another, just like in skat. The usual announcements apply ( no 120 , no 90 , no 60 , no 30 , black, each with the possibility of hand play, i.e. without taking the cards). The winner must first announce whether he will play a solo. Then he can pick up the cards and exchange them. Before continuing, he must put back two cards that count for him in the final scoring. Finally he has to say whether he will play Re or Contra. Then the game is played as above, with the difference that when you play with the dulls, there are also six wrong heart suits.
In certain cases it is possible to let the game interfere. This is known as kick or throw designated. In this case, the game need not be conducted and the dealer may instead be required to re-deal the cards. In a common variant, this does not regularly apply to solo games. Therefore, the involvement in this variant is registered as a reservation (after any solo reports).
The following variants are common and can be combined as required. After these a player can get involved,
- if he has five nines (or five kings in the game without nines),
- when he has four nines and four kings in hand,
- if he has four nines of all four suits (or, in the game without a nines, four kings of all four suits) in hand,
- if he has seven full cards, i.e. seven cards with ten or more eyes, or
- if he only has trumps that are less than or equal to the jack of diamonds (alternatively only less than or equal to the ace of diamonds).
In all cases, the throwing player shows the other players his cards and it is shuffled again.
Repeat a game
A regional variant means that a game must be repeated if, after the points have been offset (with special points), the winning party receives 1 or less or 0 or less points. The game is not recorded and the dealer must deal again.
Poverty (also known as selling , pushing , peeing , sickness or trump tax ) is when one or two players only have three or fewer trumps. Sometimes additional trumps (for example the diamond aces) are allowed. In this case, those affected can ask if another player would like to take them with them. In a frequent variant, this regularly only applies to normal games. Therefore, poverty in this variant is registered as a reservation (after any solo reports and possible interference, but before the wedding).
If an affected player is not taken, there will be interference. Otherwise, the affected player swaps up to three cards with those of his partner and, if additional trumps are allowed, these are also allowed. How many and which cards he has to or may exchange and what the players have to announce is regulated very differently. Often the number of trumps swapped has to be announced. In this game, it is often not the owner of the two queens of clubs, but rather the person who is taken and his partner who are considered to be the re-party with a corresponding effect on the point settlement.
There are essentially two competing variants of this type of game.
- The taker has to be the partner.
- The cards are offered to each player in a clockwise direction. The ownership of the old does not matter here. In the strict version of this type of game, the last player may have to take the player with the poverty with him.
Anyone who takes a player with poverty with them must estimate that they will be able to design the game alone with the appropriate additions from their poor partner.
Second dulle stings the first dulle
Another variant is catching the dullen. It is often agreed that the second dulle can take the first, i.e. in this case the player who took the second dulle takes the trick. With that he of course also catches the first one laid. Playing the first dulle can be dangerous, which reduces its value. Another variation is to override this rule in the last trick.
This rule also applies if the dulle is caught by another special card (e.g. by a double fox).
This rule does not apply in the case of a solo.
Sometimes up to two special points are awarded for catching the dulle.
Fox does the last trick (Fox at the end)
In some variants, a special point (or two) is awarded if the fox takes the last trick. Sometimes this is called a fox at the end , a fox at the pin, or a fox at the end .
If a player finds both aces of diamonds in his hand in a normal game, one or both aces of diamonds become the highest trump, depending on the rule. These are then called pig , piggy or sow . There are many variations of this type of game. Both aces of diamonds can be pigs and the player who owns them must announce this, depending on the variant, when naming the reservations or before playing the first ace of diamonds. If only one ace of diamonds becomes the pig, either the first ace of diamonds played must be the pig or it is up to the player whether to play the first or the second ace of diamonds as the pig. A variant is that the second ace of diamonds only becomes a pig if the first has taken a regular trick. In a further variant, the two diamond nines (other variant: diamond tens) as super pigs become the highest trump cards at the moment when they sit on one hand and a pig is played. Without pigs, the nines of diamonds are the lowest trumps. If one of the two nines is played before a pig is announced, there is no super pig.
Further solo variants
Pure color solo
In competition with the color solo according to the rules of the tournament, there are four variants of a color solo in clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds, in which, as with the ass solo, all cards except for the aforementioned trump suit are wrong suits. Both trumps and off-suits are ranked as ace, ten, king, queen, jack, nine. As a distinction from the color solo according to the tournament rules, these solos are also referred to as pure color solos .
The king solo works like the women's solo, with the difference that only the kings are trumps here. The king in the wrong color order is replaced by the queen.
As in the women's solo, there are 8 trump cards and 40 false color cards in the king's solo.
In the boys-women-solo, also called women-boy-solo , whore house or grand , the women and boys are trump cards, whereby the women have priority over the boys as in the normal game. The ranking is again clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds. The wrong suits are ranked ace, ten, king, nine.
Socrates is a special form of this solo . Here the jacks and queens are trumps one after the other. The solo player decides with the play whether the queens or the jacks are trumps first. After the sixth stitch the change takes place. During the trump phase z. B. of the women, the boys are considered "normal" wrong colors. This means that you may have to serve a jack as a wrong color if the solo player demands the corresponding color. The basic rule is that you should have at least the two queens of clubs or jacks of clubs in order to be able to draw the remaining trumps on the opponent in the first tricks. Furthermore, you should stay in play until the seventh trick so that you can play the seventh card even after the trump change. Socrates is a solo in which you will repeatedly experience surprises, as the course of the game is very difficult to predict because of the trump change.
With Köhler, also known as K 1000 , Ivan the Terrible or picture book , all pictures are trumps, i.e. the kings, queens and jacks, with the kings being the highest trumps and the jacks the lowest.
Further, even more seldom played variants combine the boys with kings ("monk monastery") or the kings with the women ("noble puff") to trump. There is also a tens solo in which only the tens are trumps.
If the playing player demands a trump, the next player (if he has a higher trump in his hand) must play a higher trump. The next player must do the same. If a wrong suit is caught, another player has to go over the trump (of course only if he has a higher trump) if he cannot use the wrong suit and does not want to or cannot discard another wrong suit.
Alternative announcements and cancellations
There are various alternatives to the rules of the tournament with regard to the announcement and cancellation times. One possibility is to limit the times instead of the number of cards in the hand of the accepting or rejecting player according to the number of tricks or cards already played. Other variants only allow announcements before the first trick has been played or before the first trick has gone around.
A ban on rejection is also conceivable if the other party has already canceled. This ensures that there is always a winner. In this case an announcement or rejection should only be allowed to the player who has to play the next card of the trick in order to avoid simultaneous announcements.
The division into levels of 30 eyes is actually just an extension of the simple tailor and black , as it is known from Schafkopf or Skat. There are only 120 eyes in total, which is why there is a division into levels of 30 eyes. If the Doppelkopf is played only with Schneider and black , levels of 60 points are used. An announcement from Schneider corresponds to the cancellation no 60 . The cancellations no 90 and no 30 are then not possible. The game evaluation must then of course be adjusted accordingly (see below ).
A variation is to make the announcements not by double and re , but by knocking . This leads to the fact that the game value is increased, but no information about party affiliation is disclosed.
Alternative game evaluation
The winning criteria mostly correspond to those of the tournament game rules. A slight variation is to ask the Re-party to win 121 points even if only the contra-party has announced a contra . If you only play with Schneider and black (see above ), only the winning criteria for no 90 and no 30 are omitted.
When it comes to game evaluation, however, there are countless alternatives. In the simplest case, the winning points are simply multiplied by a fixed prefactor (for example 5 or 10). Of course, this has no influence on the game itself, but it makes sense if you are playing for money (e.g. cents).
If Schneider and black are only rejected , the corresponding additional points for no 90 and no 30 are simply lost. If the tailor is canceled , an additional point will only be given to the opposing party if they still reach over 120 points.
A common variant is not to add up the points, but to double them. Exceptions to this are usually special points for Karlchen, trapped foxes or trapped dulls, but often also for double heads, which are added at the end of the game evaluation. In the case of double heads, however, it is sometimes doubled, whereby this always benefits the winning party, regardless of whether they won the double head or not. Often double heads also apply to solos. Karlchen, trapped foxes or dullen can also be used in certain solo variants that are similar to the normal game.
Both parties reach 120 points (mostly analogous to Skat split ass , sometimes divided ass or gap ass called), so four games is often doubled as a result of play value (excluding special items). These games are also known as the buck round. Bucking rounds can also be played if a announced re or contra is lost or if a game counts zero points. Several trestles can then be connected to one another, or they can be run in parallel. The latter means that if there are k parallel blocks, the play value is multiplied by 2 k . There are also various other rules that imply bucking rounds for certain events.
Tactics and course of the game
Tactics and gameplay depend on various factors. On the one hand, the set of rules used must be mentioned here. Especially the game without nines requires a strong modification of the style of play.
The tactical basis for the phase after the party has been found is above all the seesaw or classic civil engineering (one low, the other high). The partners alternately play low trump or miss and the other takes the trick with one of his high (as high as necessary) trumps. The seesaw is based on the empirical assumption that in a game the two potential partners have both low and high trumps and it would be ineffective if the low and high trumps fell together in one trick. So the number of trump cards should be maximized. Whether the seesaw is a useful tactic depends very much on the course of the game, the choice of cards and, in this regard, the seating arrangement of the partners.
In addition, the playing strength of the individual players also influences the game. Beginners usually only try to play according to the rules. Later there is the urge to take the initiative within a game and not just react. However, announcements and cancellations are usually only made with particularly good cards in hand, because there is still no certainty to assess the course of the game. Good players pay more attention to increasing the expected values of the winning points by announcing and canceling them, in order to have better chances of overall victory in a double-headed round. Particularly good players can get information about their hand through a clever choice of announcement and rejection times and waiting times before playing a card (so-called silent query). In this context, the Essen system should be mentioned in particular . Here, professional club players have summarized and refined most of the informal conventions and explained their meaning and mode of operation. The aim is to create a broad and reliable base of conventions within the individual Doppelkopf clubs.
- Michael von Borstel: The Secret of the Queen of Hearts. Textbook of double head tactics. Shaker, Herzogenrath 2002, ISBN 3-83-220240-4 .
- Rita Danyliuk: sheep head and double head. Humboldt, Baden-Baden 2004, ISBN 3-899-94023-7 .
- Bernhard Kopp: Winning at Doppelkopf. Rau, Düsseldorf 1988, ISBN 3-7919-0289-X . 3rd edition: Books on Demand, 2002, ISBN 3831133204 .
- Peter Lincoln: Doppelkopf. Rules and strategies easily explained. Urania, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-33-201621-0 .
- Matthias Mala: dual heads. Rules, tactics, variants. (rororo 8929) Rowohlt, Reinbek 1993, ISBN 3-499-18929-1 . New edition: Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2005, ISBN 3-8334-2409-5 .
- Emilio Serra: The Tübingen Doppelkopf set of rules. Schöppe and Schwarzenbart, Tübingen / Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-928111-00-0 .
- Doko-Verband - Association of double-headed players in Germany with clubs and contact persons
- Doppelkopf-Vorlesung ( Memento from May 14th, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) - script of the Student Council Mathematics Mainz
- Doppelkopf rules - instruction manual "Doppelkopf for self-study" by Hans-Uwe Scharnweber (Microsoft Word file, 189 kB)
- One-sided double headed rules - short rules (with 44 kB PDF for download)
- Doppelkopf knowledge database - Very detailed knowledge database about the Doppelkopf game
- Conventions in the DDV Doppelkopf - Articles and slides to learn about conventions in the club Doppelkopf