Schafkopf is a traditional German card game . In its current form as Bayerischer Schafkopf or Bayerisch-Schafkopf , it is one of the most popular and widespread card games in Bavaria and neighboring regions. It is considered a cultural asset and part of the old Bavarian and Franconian way of life.
The guideline for the details of the course of the game and the behavior of the players is the rules of the Bavarian Schafkopf Association or the revised version of the Schafkopfschule. However, unlike Skat , for example, sheep's head is hardly understood as a sport, but rather as a pure leisure activity. As a result, a large number of traditional rules and types of game that are rarely fixed in writing are used in private rounds, which can differ considerably from region to region.
There are various theories about the origin of the word sheep head , most of which go back to folklore traditions. The sparse sources indicate, however, that neither game nor word are of Bavarian origin.
One possible explanation is based on the fact that the games were originally noted with nine or twelve chalk lines, which combined to form a stylized sheep's head. However, there is no evidence of such notations in the Bavarian context - here the direct game of money was obviously always preferred.
Until the late 1960s in Bavaria, the alternative spelling saddle was ff head not hard to find; the appropriate discussion about the supposedly only correct form and their background was more detailed in this time the subject discussions - among others in the letter columns of the Bavarian Press - ere from about 1970, the common variant Saddle f head largely prevailed. Largely forgotten, the author Wolfgang Peschel pleaded at the beginning of the 1990s, referring to the popular opinion that in earlier times the lids (= heads) of barrels (Upper German Schaff, see Schäffler / Scheffel) were played (knocked) supposed to have been for the double-f notation. Although this hypothesis is unanimously rejected in specialist circles and there is no evidence of it in older sources, it is widespread on the Internet.
As an indirect forerunner of the various games of the Schafkopf family (including Doppelkopf and Skat), the Spanish national game L'Hombre (Lomber) and its four-player variant, the quadrille , which has been spreading in court circles since the end of the 17th century and their simplified German derivation, the German Solo , apply. The distinction between variable and permanent trumps as well as the game finding by announcement and bidding probably comes from these games.
The specific feature of the Bavarian Schafkopf, finding a partner by calling an ace, was also common in German solo; the determination of the winning party by counting the eyes (instead of the tricks), however, has a different origin, for example in the Bavarian tarot or related games.
Origin and development
The origin and development of the sheep's head game are - in comparison to Skat - rather poorly documented. On the one hand, this may be due to its relatively poor social reputation - in the first half of the 19th century, Schafkopf was considered to be comparatively unfashionable and simple against the background of the increasingly popular card games (such as German Solo or Skat), also and especially at universities “Farmer's game” - on the other hand, to conceptual shifts: Originally the term referred to several predecessor variants , more or less in the Saxon-Thuringian region, such as Wendischer or Deutscher Schafkopf . In these older Schafkopf variants, the player's party in partner games was generally determined by an interplay of the two highest trumps, as it is still handled today in a very similar way, for example, in Doppelkopf (cross-queens).
The variants played in the Palatinate and in the USA (there especially in Minnesota and Wisconsin, cf. Sheepshead ) are to be understood as further developments of this German sheep head . The assumption, often heard in Bavaria, that Skat and Doppelkopf developed from the Bavarian Schafkopf cannot be substantiated; A parallel development of all three games is more likely.
The sheep's head game was mentioned in writing for the first time in the Saxon catalog of penalties and fines from 1782 (carving and games on weekdays and Sundays) - tellingly, with the remark that, in contrast to Hazard, for example, it should not be considered a game of chance in the legal sense ("Schafkopf [ ...] non est ludus merae fortunae. ”) and is therefore allowed. In 1811, Schafkopf was included in a description of German card games by Paul Hammer in Leipzig.
With regard to Bavaria, Schafkopf is in the III. Volume of the Bavarian dictionary by J. A. Schmeller first mentioned. The specifically Bavarian variant emerged with the introduction of the call game in the first half of the 19th century - apparently in Franconia: The first mention of a sheep's head game definitely played according to Bavarian rules (in Graefenberg ) dates from 1849. The Oberpfälzische Zeitblatt (Amberg) reported as early as June 1843 about the widespread use of a certain card game called Schafkopf in some areas of Franconia. In the Bavarian Forest around 1900 the tarot game was even more popular. The question of the origin of the Bayerischer Schafkopf cannot be answered conclusively, but the existing sources suggest a migration from north to south.
The oldest written rules for the Bavarian sheep head can be found in the Schafkopf booklet - detailed instructions for learning and improving the sheep head game with German cards (Amberg 1895); The author explicitly goes into the differences to the Schafkopf variants played in northern Germany, i.e. Skat and Doppelkopf. The rules of the game were only officially set at the 1st Bavarian Schafkopf Congress on December 17, 1989 in the Munich Hofbräuhaus by the Bayerischer Schafkopf-Verein e. V. The Schafkopfschule e. V. publishes a revised version on its website. The Schafkopfschule has meanwhile established itself as a kind of unofficial appeal body for questions of the interpretation of rules.
Goal of the game
|for the player party||Eyes player party||Eyes non-player party||for the non-player party|
|Black won||all stitches done||not made a stitch||Black lost|
|won with Schneider||91-120 eyes||0-29 eyes||lost with tailor|
|simply won||61–90 eyes||30-59 eyes||just lost|
|just lost||31-60 eyes||60–89 eyes||simply won|
|lost with tailor||0-30 eyes||90-120 eyes||won with Schneider|
|Black lost||not made a stitch||all stitches done||Black won|
The aim of the game is by pricking to reach as many points: Normally applies a game for the players party with 61 points (eyes) than won, with 91 eyes as won with Schneider; if all eight tricks are taken, black wins . With 31 eyes, the Schneider party is free . For the non-player party, however, the game is in accordance with 60 points won with 90 eyes gained with Schneider , and with 30 eyes free tailor .
Exceptions are the games that are announced as tout , which are only considered won if all the tricks are taken.
Schafkopf is played in Bavaria with the Bayerisches Blatt, a variant of the German sheet (in Franconia also with the related Franconian sheet) with four players and 32 cards (long card or long sheet) - i.e. eight cards per player. In parts of northeast Bavaria ( Upper Palatinate and Upper Franconia ), however, the short card (short sheet) with 24 cards (without eights and sevens) or with 20 cards (without nines, eights and sevens) - corresponding to six or five cards per player - is preferred .
|Colors of the Bavarian leaf|
For each color there are 8 cards (a total of 32) with values (eyes) on the left. The cards of each color add up to 30 eyes, so a total of 120 eyes are to be distributed.
Nines, eights and sevens each count to 0 eyes and are also called sparrows, non-sera (le), emptiness or luschen . Eights and sevens are left out of the Schafkopf with the short card - as mentioned above.
The standard game
The three standard game variants normal game, color solo and Wenz are widespread, see below. The rules are based on them, and they are usually only permitted in sheep's head tournaments . One speaks here of the "pure" sheep's head. In addition, a whole series of expanding game options with often only regional significance have developed, the most important of which are listed in the chapter Expanding game variants .
The normal game: call, sow or partner game
|O O O O|
|A 10 K||A 10 K||A 10 K|
In the normal game (call game; also: sow or partner game) , the four upper and then the four lower in the order (descending) of the colors acorn , grass (also: leaf, green, blue, foliage), heart and bells represent the highest trump cards; furthermore, the remaining heart cards in the order ace / sow, ten, king, nine, eight, seven count as trumps, so there are a total of 14. All other cards are called suits .
Two players each play against the other two. The playmaker announces a call game; If none of the other players announces a higher-quality solo game , the playmaker calls any color ace (acorn, grass or bell ace / sow) of his choice, which he does not have in hand and of which color he has at least one Must have card. The playmaker and the owner of the called ace then play together and form the player's party, the other two form the non-player's party . The tricks won by the partners are added up at the end of the game.
Usually it is only found out during the game who owns the called ace, so that initially only the player who owns the ace is aware of the affiliation. Therefore the ace can be searched for: The chosen color can be played by one of the three other players; in this case the ace must be added even if there is another card of the same suit. The called ace may not be discarded either. If a suit (or trump) is played in which the called player is free, he may not play the calling ace; if the call suit is not played in the course of the game, it can only fall in the last trick.
Accordingly, the owner of the called ace can only play the calling suit with the ace. The only exception to this rule is running away: If the player has three or more cards of the called color in addition to the ace, he can play through below, that is, play the called color with another card. If the call color has already been played in this way, the called ace can now also be discarded.
The solos: color solo and Wenz
In all solo games, one declarer plays against the three players. Solo games always have priority over normal games. Within the solo games, the Sie enjoys the highest rank, followed by Tout games, Color Solo and Wenz (there is no ranking between the different colors of the solo games). The seldom played variants listed under special forms of the solo are mostly classified after the Wenz.
The color solo
|O O O O|
|A 10 K||A 10 K||A 10 K|
|O O O O|
|A 10 K||A 10 K||A 10 K|
|Grass (green) solo|
|O O O O|
|A 10 K||A 10 K||A 10 K|
|O O O O|
|A 10 K||A 10 K||A 10 K|
In the color solo, the top and bottom are still the highest trump cards in the order mentioned; the solo player now announces a color of his choice when the game is announced, which determines the remaining trumps in the order Ace to Seven. In the past, the heart solo was occasionally given priority over the other color solos, which is no longer common these days.
|U U U U|
|A 10 K O||A 10 K O||A 10 K O||A 10 K O|
In the Wenz (also: Bauernwenz, Hauswenz) there are only four trumps, namely the Unter or Wenzen in the order acorn, grass, heart and bells. The waiter is ranked in the colors between king and nine, hearts are the normal color.
Tout and you
The tout (French: everything, pronounced you in Bavaria ) is a higher quality form of solo play (color solo tout is again rated higher than Wenz toout). The playmaker announces that the other side will not take a trick; if this is the case, the playmaker wins, otherwise the non-player party. A tout is usually billed at double the tariff.
The most valuable solo game in Schafkopf is the you, which comes about when a player receives all 4 upper and lower cards (with the short card 4 upper and the 2 highest under, which can also count as toout). The probability of this is 1: 10,518,300 (for the short card 1: 134,596). The origin of the name is unclear, possibly it is a folk etymological analogy to Tout / Du. It is the only game that does not have to be played in accordance with the rules and is placed on the table. Billing is usually done at four times the tariff.
In many Bavarian taverns, you are honored by the custom of no longer using the corresponding cards, but rather framing them and hanging them on the wall with the date and the player's name.
Course of the game
Mix, take off and deal
Before the game starts, the first dealer is determined, usually by drawing the highest card from the deck.
The dealer shuffles the cards, let the player who right sitting next to him stand out, and are then subsequently clockwise twice four cards (at tournaments often 4 times 2), where he met the player to the left (next to = forehand or first man) begins, who also comes out, i.e. is the opening player. The role of the giver changes clockwise; four games make up a round .
When withdrawing at least three cards should be withdrawn or remain in place; Taking this rule into account, you can withdraw up to 3 times. Instead of taking off, you can also knock ; in this case, the player making the cut may instruct the dealer to deal the cards differently than usual - for example, every eight instead of two times four, counterclockwise , etc.
|Type of game||game|
|Tout games||Color solo tout|
|Colored Vulture Tout etc.|
|Begging board, junk toout|
|Solo games||Color solo|
|Color vulture etc.|
|Negative games (zero, etc.) *|
Before the game actually begins, the game is announced to determine who is the player and which game variant is being played. The player who leads the game first has the option to either announce a game (I would play) or pass (I am gone / further) . Then the right to announce the game changes to the next player in clockwise order, and so on, until the dealer is asked at the end.
If a game has been announced, the following players may still have the opportunity to announce a higher quality game ( i.e. a solo or a Wenz etc.) (I also play) and thus take over the game; the first player can now announce a higher value game in turn, whereby the game would fall back to him. In the case of games of equal value, the seating arrangement decides.
The ranking of the individual games is structured according to the table opposite, games of the “pure” Schafkopf in bold (* = regionally very different).
If no player is found
If no player announces a game, there are various options that must be agreed before the game:
- It is thrown together, that is, it is shuffled again (by the next dealer clockwise) and dispensed.
- The following game or all of the following round become the buck game or buck round , that is, the tariffs are doubled.
- After being thrown together, each player pays a basic tariff into a stick (also called a pot ); This is a jackpot, the content of which can be taken out by the player in the next partner game won or must be doubled in the case of a lost partner game (there are also very different rules for this; in one variant only solos can get the stick out, in another is shared between player and teammate).
- When tournament Sheepshead is must-play use, that is, the owner of the old (meaning the Acorn top, that is the highest trump) must announce a game.
- A crossbuck is also often played with the tournament sheep head , in which the cross-seated players automatically belong together.
- Another variant is playing a junk .
When the game is announced, the opening player plays the first card; then give the players one after another in a clockwise maps to . As soon as there are four cards on the table, it is decided to which player the trick belongs. This takes the trick cards and plays the next card; the rest of the process is analogous until all 32 cards - corresponding to 8 tricks - have been played.
Depending on the type of the respectively played card differentiates color and stocking stitches . To get to the trick, either a higher value picture of the same suit or a trump must be added. If a trump is already in the trick, it can only be won with a higher trump. Overstepping with a higher suit or trump card is not compulsory (no compulsory trick ), but if a suit is played, all players must admit cards of the same suit; if a trump is played, the corresponding trump must be added (duty to operate) . If a player does not have the suit played, he can either trump with trumps or discard any color card of his choice (no trump requirement ).
Incorrect operation, reproach or verbal influence on the game generally results in the loss of the game. If a trick has not yet been completed (i.e. the cards are still open on the table), each player has the right to view the previous trick upon request.
After the game has ended and the points have been counted, it will be scored. In partner games, the two losers pay the two winners the same amount; in solos, the solo player receives his winnings (or pays his loss) from all three players. Winners must request the correct amount of the game settlement before cards are drawn for the next game. If too much was asked, the losing party can claim back twice the difference if the rules are strictly interpreted.
Schafkopf does not count as a game of chance in the sense of § 284 StGB and may therefore be played for money in Germany. The tariff is - like everything else with Schafkopf - a question of the standard agreement at the beginning.
Normally, a basic tariff is agreed which is the basis for all further calculations (Schneider / Schwarz, Laufende). A special tariff applies to the solo, which does not necessarily have to be based on the basic tariff, but rather is determined according to the most convenient calculation and coin size. Accordingly, for example, the tariff with 5 cents as the basic tariff and 20 cents as the solo tariff is referred to as 5/20 . In pure leisure rounds, the tariffs 5/20, 10/20 and 10/50 are most often found , although there are no upper limits. For the call game, a tariff between the basic and solo tariff is often agreed (e.g. 10/20/50 )
Schneider and Schwarz
If one party becomes a tailor after the end of the game, the value of the game is increased once by the basic tariff, in the case of black it increases again (whether the player's or non-player's party has won is irrelevant for the tariff determination). Schneider sees himself as a matter of honor and is paid voluntarily, while black must be claimed by the winner.
With Wenz and Farb-Solo, Schneider and Schwarz are not always calculated in the long sheep head, but in principle in the short sheep head.
Billing of ongoing
If a certain number of the highest trumps are in the hands of one of the two parties in uninterrupted order, this is called a running (or pawns, gentlemen ). Each running person increases the base price of the game, usually by an additional base rate (with high base prices sometimes only half the base rate is charged). The number of runners is determined as follows:
- basically at least three (sometimes two for Wenz and related games)
- with tournament sheep usually a maximum of four (i.e. only the upper ones; in private rounds the maximum number of runners can only affect the upper ones, but also upper and lower or even all trumps)
Begging and junk
For begging, the basic tariff (= solo) is often used as the basis for calculation, sometimes a separate tariff is agreed. There are no fixed rules when it comes to junk: either the loser pays the basic tariff or a specially agreed tariff to all players, or the two players with the most points pay to the other two (special constellations that increase the value of this game are in the chapter Junk listed).
Double and multiple tariffs
A whole series of constellations lead to the Schafkopf doubling or multiplying the base price; this is then calculated including tailor / black and running.
A fundamental doubling of the tariff can often be found at the wedding and obligatory at the tout ; when you the quadruple rate is calculated.
Depending on the agreement, a representative of the non-player party can give a counter (push, injection) before or when playing the first card , which also doubles the value of the game. A frequently played variant of the contra on the first (card) is the contra with eight cards, which means that the opponent can wait in the first round until it is his turn.
A takeover of the game by the non-player party (i.e. it now needs 61 eyes to win - Kontra takes over ) is not compliant with the rules, but is more often practiced.
The contra can be answered by the player or his partner with Re (tour) (counter-attack) , whereby the play value doubles again, which in turn can be answered by further doubling.
After picking up the first four (or three in the short hand game variant ) cards (dealer: last four / three cards), the players can place (double, stand, raise, knock) clockwise , i.e. double the value of the game. The term lay is explained by the fact that usually by showing a coin or another object, the player , indicates that the game value is being doubled.
A slightly defused form of this rule comes into being when only the player who leads the game is allowed to place (or the second player may only place if the player in front of him has already placed - one after the other as opposed to mixed up ).
Buck games or rounds
Buck games or rounds are games or rounds in which double the tariff per se counts. They can take place on a wide variety of occasions, for example after being thrown together, after lost solos or contra games and generally after black or re-games.
This results in the following scheme for calculating the game price ( G = basic tariff):
|game||Basic amount||+ Tailor||+ Black||+ Ongoing||Multipliers||
(contra, laying, buck etc.)
|= Game price|
|Reputation game||1 × G
or 2 × G
|+ 1 × G||+ 1 × G||+ 1 × G
or ½ × G each
|-||each × 2||total|
|4 × G
or 5 × G
or + 1 × G
or + 1 × G
A basic amount is paid into the stock (Pott, Henn etc.) for thrown games. The stick can be won by the player through a previously agreed game won for the players' party; if this game is lost, the player (or the players' party) must double the contents of the stick.
In sheep's head tournaments, one occasionally finds a special variant of the stick, the so-called repentance money .
Expanding game variants
These games expand the basic structure of the classic sheep's head; Rarely found at tournaments, they have a permanent place in many established recreational rounds.
Special forms of partner game
A player (wedding party) who has only one trump places it face down on the table and offers a wedding. The one who takes the card first (the question is asked again starting from the dealer clockwise) slides a replacement card (necessarily a non-trump card) at the wedding party and is now his partner. In the case of the farmer's wedding (also: double wedding ), two cards are exchanged.
The rules for weddings vary from region to region; the card can the high Zeiters also be placed on the table, or is only allowed if all players on are.
In the (very rare) case that two players only hold one trump, a double wedding is also possible. The player's party is the couple who announces the first wedding party.
The Kreuzbock or Goaß is a variant of the partner game played on certain occasions (for example, all continue, after a heart solo or after a lost solo); Usually four games (one round) are played. The players sitting across from each other automatically belong together as partners.
A special feature of this variant is the fact that there is no actual player party; The following convention therefore normally applies - handled differently from region to region:
- the party that last challenged is considered the player's party
- if no counter is given, the party that placed first counts as the player's party
- if there is neither a contra], the leading party is considered the player's party
The must-play (competitive game) is the most common variant in tournaments in the event that all four players pass. In this case , the owner of a specific card (almost always the acorn-top) must play.
The must-play game has some special features; the game is already considered to have been won by the players with 60 points and as a tailor free with 30 points (correspondingly as won with tailor with 90 points). In addition, no contra may be given. If the must player is blocked, i.e. if he has no suit without the associated ace, a so-called renonce (/ r? 'No /, French wrong suit ) is also possible, i.e. he may exceptionally call an ace of its Color he owns no card. If the must-player finally holds all three suit aces himself, he may also call a suit ten (possibly even a suit king ) of his choice.
Special forms of the solo
These games are mostly only of regional importance, so only the most common are listed here.
|O O O O|
|A 10 K U||A 10 K U||A 10 K U||A 10 K U|
The vulture is a modification of the Wenz, in which only the upper act as trump cards. Similarly, there are variants in which another map sheet takes on the function of Unter im Wenz. For the king (keni, crown, hawk, king, beard) these are, for example, the kings or for the railroad workers the tens.
|U U U U|
|A 10 K O||A 10 K O||A 10 K O|
The color Wenz is a mixed form of Wenz and color solo, that is, in addition to the lower as the highest trumps, a trump suit is selected, the upper are ranked so that there are eleven trumps. Here, too, there are variants in which a different map sheet takes on the function of the lower in the colored vulture, such as the upper in the case of the colored vulture .
|A K O U||A K O U||A K O U||A K O U|
The begging is a classic negative game, i. H. the solo player is not allowed to take a single trick. There are no trumps; the order of the cards is - different to the other games - (from top to bottom) ace / sow, king, over, under, ten, nine, eight, seven. In some regions it can also be played openly (crotchless or begging board) .
Modification: In some regions, begging is also played in such a way that upper, lower and heart are trumps, as in the normal reputation game. In addition, the order of the cards is retained, i. H. As / sow, ten, king, 9, 8, 7.
Related to begging is the junk Tout or Pfd; the solo player is also not allowed to take a trick, but there are trumps (upper, lower and heart).
Sometimes a mixed variant is also played. Although upper and lower are considered trumps, there is no trump suit.
The junk is a variation of the game when no game announcement has taken place (often the last man has the opportunity to announce junk if the players in front of him are all gone). In contrast to the other types of game, everyone plays against each other, i.e. H. each for himself. The same trump cards apply as in the Rufspiel, but the aim is to make as few eyes as possible. The player with the most eyes loses and pays all other players.
If two or more players have the same number, the player with the most tricks loses. If the number of tricks is also the same, the one with most trumps loses; if this number is the same, the player with the higher trump loses. Special rules adopted from skat are walk-through (or murder ) (i.e. one player takes all the tricks and wins the game) and virgin (i.e. one or two players do not take a trick, the loser pays double or quadruple).
A variation of the junk is the Schieberamsch , a special version that is only distributed locally, in which the tricks are passed clockwise at the end of the game; the player who has the fewest points at the end also wins.
Occasionally, after certain events, special rounds with different rules are played (for example, crossbuck rounds , Doppler or Bock rounds and junk rounds ).
The acorn and grass tops are removed from play before the deal; the dealer deals as usual, but only receives six cards himself. The player picks up the two cards and may (only) play one color solo. He passes (pushes) any two cards in a clockwise direction. The second player in turn picks up the pushed cards and pushes any two cards on, etc. to the dealer who now also has eight cards; then the game is announced (in the event that the player does not want to play solo, there are different rules; for example, the waiter can be pushed back to the dealer).
The slider can also be used with three cards (the top three upper players are picked up, the player who takes the lead must play a solo) or four cards (all four upper players are picked up, the solo must be determined before the cards are dealt).
Related to the slide is the Munich Devil's Round . The player is assigned the acorn upper, the grass upper, the bell upper and the acorn lower and must announce his solo before the deal.
Further special rounds
From the large number of these special games, which are often only of regional interest, only a more or less arbitrary selection can be reproduced here:
- In Hajj / Hatsch (aten) (= High German: "The limping") the player has to play and automatically has a contra .
- In the Allgäu round (chip round, Fisiko, three-money round) , three rounds are played in which each player has to play a call game, a Wenz and a color solo.
- At the Strixner there is initially no game announcement, all participants play according to normal game rules for themselves; whoever receives the third trick must announce a solo .
- In the plucking solo , the solo player gives a player a card of his choice and draws (plucks) him any card ( Swabia ).
- At Minas , a round of compulsory solos is played after a solo game has been won. The player seated in front must play a solo of his choice. At the end of the round, the player with the worst solo pays a previously agreed price to the three winners. ( Mönchberg , Lower Franconia)
A sheep's head meeting traditionally ends with the slogan “The old man gives the last round”. The player who last had the acorn-upper in a call game then pays the first game for the last round. For the last round there are sometimes special rules (double scoring of the games, only solos, etc.).
Variants with a different number of players
If there are more or less than four players available, the following variants can be used:
- Schafkopf to five: Corresponds to the normal Schafkopf game, the respective dealer pauses.
- Schafkopf in three: If there are only three players available, the game is played with a short hand. Each player receives eight cards. In this variant, which is not allowed in tournaments, only Solo or Wenz is played
- Sheep's head for two: Also laid-on , peasant or officer's sheep's head , sheep's head-like game with strongly deviating rules, cf. also officer skat
Schafkopf as a cultural asset
Recently, the decreasing importance of the sheep's head game as a leisure activity, especially among young people, has been discussed in Bavarian media. This is also understood at the local political level as the impending loss of part of Bavarian identity; Countermeasures are therefore increasingly being supported. Sheep's head courses are being offered at more and more adult education centers in Bavaria.
Tournament sheep head
Schafkopf is by definition disorganized as a purely recreational game; Nevertheless, many public life associations in Bavaria, such as sports or shooting clubs, but also breweries and restaurants, regularly organize a sheep's head tournament (also: sheep's head races). Despite the comparatively uniform set of rules for these tournaments, there are still considerable regional differences.
The Guinness Book of Records only recognized card game records through 2006 if they were based on a full set of 52 cards. Only after the intervention of the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation was this rule relaxed and Schafkopf recognized in this category; since then, the record in season cards has been held exclusively by Schafkopf rounds (for medical reasons, the Guinness rules allow two substitutes). The officially recognized record playing time is currently 260 hours, set in November 2013 by a Munich round.
- Schafkopf has its own Schafkopf language, which is not always completely understandable for outsiders .
- In a Bavarian version of the song Herz ist Trumpf (Then you call ...) by Trio , Max Griesser described the course of a heart-solo-sheep-head game.
- The crime novel Schafkopf by Andreas Föhr also addresses the game.
- Schafkopf - a bissel was always going is the title of an early evening series broadcast on ZDF since 2012 .
- Paul Hammer: The German card games or instructions to learn the usual social games with the German card as solo, contra, sheep head .... Leipzig 1811.
- Rita Danyliuk: Schafkopf and Doppelkopf - For beginners and advanced. Rules and tactics. Practical tips Hanover: Humboldt, 2013. ISBN 3-89-994194-2 .
- Johann Andreas Schmeller: Bavarian Dictionary Volume III. and IV., Munich 1837, 2nd edition 1877 (summarized as Volume 2) by Georg Karl Frommann, p. 378.
- Bayer. State library: Oberpfälzisches Zeitblatt , III. Born in 1843, Amberg, Saturday, June 10th, p. 375 (on the Internet).
- Philipp Jedelhauser: “The sheep's head game, pleasure and tradition”, in Burgau aktuell , No. 97, November 2018, p. 25/26, available on the Internet with - Stadtzeitung Burgau aktuell.
- Claus D. Grupp: Schafkopf, Doppelkopf, Binokel, Cego, Gaigel, Jass, Tarock u. a. "Local games" , Niedernhausen im Taunus: Falken, 1980.
- ↑ a b c Wolfgang Peschel: Bayerisch Schaffkopfen - Worth knowing, humorous; with the official rules of the Bavarian Schafkopf Association. ISBN 3-924012-31-8 .
- ↑ a b Schafkopf rules of the Bavarian Schafkopfschule
- ^ FW Grimme : Notes on Schwameldirk (En Fastowendstück). In: Schwänke and poems in Sauerland dialect, Paderborn 1861, pp. 135/136.
- ↑ Freiberger Bier-Comment, Freiberg 1862, p. 101.
- ^ Sheep's head story from BR-online ( Memento from September 26, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ H. Burger, E. Fischer, H. Riehl-Heyse, J. Blaumeiser: Bavaria's Prussians are the best Munich 1979.
- ^ W. Medicus: The natural history according to word and verdict of the people of Nördlingen 1867, p. 83.
- ↑ On the history of the game of Skat
- ^ G. Ezekiel: Royalists and Republicans. From the time of the French Republic. Second division: Count Larochejacquelein, Leipzig 1845, p. 164.
- ↑ pawn push
- ^ Karl Ferdinand Hommel: Rhapsodia quaestionum in foro quotidie obunientum, Volume 3, Bayreuth 1782, p. 115.
- ↑ The spectator on the Pegnitz (Nuremberg), 2nd year, No. 1 of January 2, 1849, p. 3.
- ^ Charles v. Reinhardstöttner: Land and people in the Bavarian Forest, 1890, p. 66.
- ↑ History of the sheep head game at the sheep head school
- ↑ 
- ↑ IPCS to the Franconian image
- ↑ Rules - Schafkopfschule. Retrieved May 18, 2020 .
- ↑ All of these variants are discussed in the Schafkopfforum Sauspiel  and are thus substantiated.
- ↑ Cf. Claus D. Grupp: Schafkopf, Doppelkopf ... et al. "Lokalspiele" , Niedernhausen im Taunus: Falken-Verlag, 1980, p. 40.
- ^ Frankenpost (Kronach), February 7, 2009.
- ↑ Guinness Book of Records: The Schafkopf world record is back in Munich . Augsburg General. November 15, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- ^ Andreas Föhr : Schafkopf by Andreas Föhr . Droemer Knaur . Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- ↑ Schafkopf - a bissel was always ZDF ( Memento of the original from May 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Accessed April 22, 2014