A Dutch Oven , also called Camp Oven or chuck wagon oven , is a three-legged pot made of cast iron that, thanks to its three feet on the bottom , can be placed directly in an open fire as a grape and closed with a suitable lid.
This form of a ditch was exported all over the world by German-speaking emigrants - " dutch " means Low German- speaking Dutch and Germans - in particular to the United States , South Africa and Australia . The term " oven " ( English for oven ) comes from the fact that in the pot for example, bread can be baked (pot bread). The high temperature required for this is provided by the open fire; In the first phase of bread baking, the pot is kept closed, with the water vapor escaping from the bread dough being dammed under a heavy lid. Then the lid is removed, the steam is blown out and the bread is baked open to the end, whereby a thick crust can form.
The invention of pottery is associated with the use of clay cookware, such as a pot made of clay that can be used in embers or an open fire. Equipped with feet, it was used in Jutland as a jydepott until the 19th century, in a form that differed little from its medieval , ancient or prehistoric predecessors. Due to their three clay feet, these ceramic grapes could be placed without wobbling (see tripod ) - be it directly in an open fire, over a fireplace or on a stove . The same applies to the more stable ore grapes, initially cast from bronze , later widely made from cast iron . These iron vessels served as cooking kettles or, combined with heavy metal lids, as a kind of oven .
The dutch oven came to the USA with European settlers, probably from the Netherlands or Germany ; in any case, the settlement area of the Pennsylvania Dutch and other European colonists belonged to its early range . In South Africa this pot is called Potjie ; it was introduced there in the 19th century by Dutch settlers ( Boers ). The typical stew that is prepared in it is called Potjiekos in South Africa .
Design and use
This pot was available in different sizes, whereby the largest version could accommodate a smaller pot. The most common were smaller versions on three feet and with a tight-fitting lid that had a raised edge. Due to this design, it was possible to put glowing coals on the lid so that the pot was heated from above and below and the heat was evenly distributed inside. Due to the thickness of the material, the heat could also be stored over a long period of time. Many models could also be hung on hooks over a fireplace.
In the 19th century, three-legged were in the US pans under the name spider ( Spider made). With the introduction of modern kitchen stoves and built-in ovens, these kitchen appliances lost their importance.
A variant of this pot that has long been used in various cultures is the three-legged grape . What is now commonly referred to as a Dutch oven corresponds in appearance and function to a completely normal roaster , apart from the shape of the lid. Today the (three-legged) Dutch oven is mainly used in Europe and the USA as a cooking device for camping and outdoors, but also in use with an electric stove and oven. A special design with T-shaped feet can also be used on a grill grate.
- Andrew F. Smith: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. New York 2006; Article Dutch ovens
- List of accessories , accessed on August 10, 2016.