An infarction is tissue destruction ( necrosis ) as a result of an insufficient supply of oxygen ( hypoxia ) due to insufficient blood flow ( ischemia ). The infarction is opposed to the infarction , in which primarily an obstacle to drainage is the reason for the hypoxia . Colloquially the heart attack is called infarct . The word infarct comes from the Latin verb infarcire ("to stuff into").
The most common cause of anemic infarct is the spread of a thrombus ( embolism ) into an arterial vessel . Since there are no or hardly any collateral vessels in anemic infarction , the resulting blood depletion ( ischemia ) leads to the appearance of a so-called "white infarction".
Although the affected area is supplied with blood from at least one collateral, the insufficient blood flow results in an oxygen deficiency. This is followed by necrosis with destruction of the vascular endothelium . The resulting bleeding into the tissue leads to the typical red coloration ("red infarction").
The closure of the venous outflow of a tissue area leads to hemorrhagic infarction (example: testicular torsion ).
Due to the lack of drainage, blood congestion develops in the corresponding tissue. Since no oxygenated blood can flow in, hypoxia develops with subsequent necrosis . Macroscopically , hemorrhagic infarction resembles hemorrhagic infarction .
The infarction due to an infected embolus is known as a "septic infarction".
- Eye : as apoplexia papillae after closure of an artery supplying the retina or the optic nerve
- Heart : as a myocardial infarction due to the occlusion of a coronary artery , usually after pre-existing coronary heart disease
- Brain : as ischemic stroke , the most common form of stroke
- Kidney : as a kidney infarction usually after embolic occlusion of a small renal artery, less often as a hemorrhagic infarction
- Pulmonary infarction , usually by a pulmonary embolism due
- Liver infarction
- Splenic infarction
- Bone infarcts such as "hip infarction" ( femoral head necrosis )
- Mesenteric infarction , see also angina abdominalis
- Uric acid infarction of the kidney
- Calcareous infarction
- Spinal cord infarction
- Periphery / extremities: e.g. B. acute closure of a leg artery (see PAD , claudication )
- Werner Böcker, Helmut Denk, Philipp U. Heitz (Hrsg.): Pathology. 3., completely redesigned. Edition. Urban & Fischer, Elsevier, Munich / Jena 2004, ISBN 3-437-42381-9 .