from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As ingaevones (other spellings: Ingaevones, Ingvaeonen, Ingväonen), after the Roman writers Pliny and Tacitus a group of Germanic strains referred to, the particular Yngvi revered and dwelt in the North Sea ( "proximi oceano"). Often the Angles , Chauken , Frisians , Saxons , Warnen , Jutes , Cimbres and Teutons are identified.

Ancient sources

The Ingaevones / Ingvaenoes at Pliny

In the fourth book of his natural history, Pliny reports on the Ingaevones, he calls them Ingvaeonen (4, 27):

“Incipit deinde clarior aperiri fama from gente Ingvaeonum, quae est prima in Germania. Mons Saevo ibi, inmensus nec Ripaeis iugis minor, inmanem ad Cimbrorum usque promunturium efficit sinum, qui Codanus vocatur, refertus insulis, quarum clarissima est Scatinavia, inconpertae magnitudinis, portionem tantum eius, quod notum sit, Hillevionum quolente orbem gente terrarum eam appellant. nec minor est opinione Aeningia. "

"Let us now start with the better-known customer of the Ingvaeonen tribe, who are the first (most important) in Germania. There is Mount Saevo , immense and no smaller than the Ripean mountain range . It forms a huge bay as far as the Cimbri peninsula ; the bay is called Codanus and is full of islands, the most famous of which is Scatinavia, of immeasurable size ... "

In Book 4, 28 he writes:

"Germanorum genera quinque: Vandili, quorum pars Burgodiones, Varinnae, Charini, Gutones. Alterum genus Inguaeones, quorum pars Cimbri, Teutoni ac Chaucorum gentes "

“The Germanic tribes are five: the Vandil , to which Burgodionen , Varinner , Chariner and Gutonen belong. Of a different kind are the Ingvaeons, to which the tribes of the Cimbri , Teutons and Chauken belong. "

The Ingaevones at Tacitus

The name form Ingaevonen goes back to Tacitus . In his ethnographic writing Germania, he reported on three cult groups of the Germanic peoples, of which the Ingaevones lived closest to the ocean:

“Celebrant carminibus antiquis, quod unum apud illos memoriae et annalium genus est, Tuistonem deum terra editum. Ei filium Mannum, originem gentis conditoremque, Manno tris filios adsignant, e quorum nominibus proximi Oceano Ingaevones, medii Herminones, ceteri Istaevones vocentur. "

“With old chants they praise what is their only form of memory and tradition, the earth-born god Tuisto . They assign to him the son Mannus , origin and founder of the family (the Teutons), the Mannus (again) three sons, after whose names the Ingaevones closest to the ocean, the middle Hermions and the other Istaevones were named. "

- Germania chapter 2

Ingaevonian languages

Based on the tribal group mentioned by Tacitus and Pliny, the term Ingwaeon was established in Germanic linguistics in the 20th century for a group of languages ​​common in the North Sea. As a rule, it refers to the early language levels of English , Low German and Frisian . However, the term is under criticism because it can give the impression that it relates directly to the languages ​​of the tribes named by Tacitus and Pliny. The term North Sea Germanic is therefore often used as an alternative .


  1. ^ Tacitus: De origine et situ Germanorum ( Wikisource ). Tacitus: De Orignie et Situ Germanorum (German, Latin).
  2. Klaas Heeroma: On the problems of Ingwaeon . In: Frühmittelalterliche Studien 4, 1970, pp. 231–243.