Jawne (school)

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Löwenbrunnen on Cologne-Erich-Klibansky-Platz as a memorial to the Cologne Jawne
type of school Reform Realgymnasium
founding 1919
closure 1938
place Cologne
country North Rhine-Westphalia
Country Germany
Coordinates 50 ° 56 '24 "  N , 6 ° 56' 41"  E Coordinates: 50 ° 56 '24 "  N , 6 ° 56' 41"  E

The Jawne ( Hebrew : יבנה) was a Jewish reform high school in Cologne .


The school was named after the town of Javne , which is now near Tel Aviv , where the Jewish high council, the Sanhedrin , tried to carry on the Jewish traditions with a school for scholars after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70.


Jawne Testimony, 1937

The Jawne in Cologne was the first and only secondary Jewish school in the Rhineland .

It was founded in 1919 by the rabbi of the Orthodox exit community, Adass Jeschurun , Emanuel Carlebach (1874-1927), brother of the Leipzig rabbi Ephraim Carlebach , and in 1925 it was officially recognized. At the end of the 1920s it was attended by over 400 Jewish students. The painter Ludwig Meidner worked as a drawing teacher at the school between 1935 and 1939.

The longtime and last head of Jawne, Director of Studies Erich Klibansky , recognized the National Socialist danger early on. He responded by increasing the teaching of English and New Hebrew in order to prepare his students for a life outside Germany. As early as 1933 he formulated without illusion: “Which school do I send my child to? That question is decided today. One can no longer argue that we shouldn't go back to the ghetto ourselves, because the process of outsourcing the German people towards us Jews is in full swing. ”After the Reichspogromnacht in 1938, Erich Klibansky and his colleges planned to relocate the entire school to England , and organized to do so the Kindertransport . The departure, by train and ship, was only allowed to be carried out unaccompanied by the parents. They succeeded in getting some of their students to travel to England. At least 130 Jewish children from Cologne managed to survive. After the outbreak of World War II , this was no longer possible. Klibansky, his family and the remaining students were deported to the vicinity of Minsk with over 1,000 other Cologne Jews in 1942 and all murdered there.


In the Cologne learning and memorial site Jawne, which is located on the site of the destroyed Jewish high school, the history of the school is remembered in exhibitions. The exhibition “The children in the schoolyard next door”, designed by the historian Cordula Lissner, is currently being shown there. Thanks to persistent efforts by the citizens of Cologne, the former schoolyard was renamed Erich-Klibansky-Platz in 1990 . On the small square, a surviving student designed the lion fountain with the names of those who were murdered. In November 2008 the initiative was honored with the Active for Democracy and Tolerance Prize, and in December 2009 with the Cologne Bilz Prize from the Cologne Bilz Foundation . The preservation of the memorial was in jeopardy in 2009 because the rooms used should no longer be left free of charge by the landlord, as before, but the association should pay a “standard rent”. The various protests against it were successful: at the beginning of 2010 an amicable agreement was reached, the Jawne received a permanent guarantee of existence.

The memorial site is looked after by a working group of around 20 members in conjunction with the EL-DE House . The Landschaftsverband Rheinland acknowledged this commitment: On September 10, 2013, he awarded the two long-term Jawne employees Ursula Reuter and Adrian Stellmacher his Rhineland thaler on behalf of the employees of the working group .


  • Dieter Corbach: The jaws of Cologne. On the history of the first Jewish high school in the Rhineland and in memory of Erich Klibansky. Commemorative book for the exhibition in the historical town hall of Cologne from November 12th to 26th, 1990 . Scriba Verlag, Cologne 1990, ISBN 3-921232-42-2 .
  • Axel Joerss, Cordula Lissner, Adrian Stellmacher: Children leave 5 p.m. 13. Memories of the Poland campaign and Kindertransporte 1938/39. Catalog for the exhibition of the Jawne learning and memorial site . Jawne as a place of learning and memorial, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-00-044763-1 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Archive link ( Memento of the original from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.report-k.de
  2. community sheet of the synagogue community Cologne, November 2009, p. 15: (PDF; 263 kB) Jawne learning and memorial site acutely endangered. Allianz cancels the previous silent sponsorship and demands "commercial rent"
  3. ^ Note on hagalil.com and article in the Jüdischen Allgemeine from September 12, 2013