Cultural landscape protection

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The protection of cultural landscapes or the protection of historical cultural landscapes is an interdisciplinary field of work in landscape planning , nature protection and monument preservation .

Since the 1990s, this field of work has again increasingly moved into the focus of research and practice. Generally recognized technical basics for the protection of historical cultural landscapes are largely missing. Likewise, there is no authority that carries out this task, although it would be a state task in principle.

The terms cultural landscape protection or protection of historical cultural landscapes are often interpreted and used differently according to the understanding of the disciplines of monument preservation and nature protection: In monument preservation, this is usually understood to mean a majority of architectural or soil monuments and / or their surroundings ( environmental protection ) ( overall system). In nature conservation, on the other hand, the complex of topics is often narrowed down to historically traditional or natural-ecological land use methods (traditional landscape management). From the perspective of landscape planning, it is an approach to consider and evaluate the current state of the landscape holistically on the basis of natural (natural-spatial-geographical), historical-anthropogenic (historical-cultural) and biotic (ecological) factors.

So-called historical cultural landscape elements or cultural-historical landscape elements are the starting point for planning at the property level. Various approaches and methods exist in Germany for their recording. The most extensive inventory is currently the KLEKs - cultural landscape elements cadastre of the University of Neubrandenburg , which is currently under construction and was developed primarily for the purposes of landscape planning and local research. The State Office for Monument Preservation Hesse and the Rhineland Regional Association have been running KuLaDig (Culture. Landscape. Digital.) Since 2010, a joint Internet portal that uses texts, maps and images to make information about objects and spaces of the landscape cultural heritage generally accessible.

Legal basis

The European Landscape Convention , passed by the Council of Europe in 2000, is currently the most important basis for holistic cultural landscape protection at European level. This international law convention has not yet been signed by the Federal Republic of Germany . A transfer to federal German law is problematic due to the separation of cultural and environmental administration (nature protection and monument preservation) and the cultural sovereignty of the federal states.

The currently sole basis for a holistic cultural landscape protection through the discipline of landscape planning is § 2 Principle 14 of the Federal Nature Conservation Act: "Historical cultural landscapes and parts of landscapes of particular character including those of particular importance for the character or beauty of protected or worthy of protection cultural, architectural and ground monuments, are to be received. ”Due to a lack of reductions (e.g. implementation ordinance), the handling of this order has so far remained unclear.

BECKER (1998) made it clear that “the preservation of historical cultural landscapes and parts of the landscape is a matter of nature conservation and landscape conservation, regardless of the preservation of monuments”. The mandate of the Federal Nature Conservation Act in § 2 for the protection of historical cultural landscapes and parts of historical cultural landscapes has, on the one hand, a serving function for the preservation of monuments (environmental protection). On the other hand, it establishes an independent area of ​​responsibility, the opportunities of which, however, have only been insufficiently taken advantage of by landscape planning in recent decades.

further reading

  • Becker, WC: The peculiarity of the cultural landscape. Importance and strategies for landscape planning , dissertation, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-89700-053-9
  • Brink, A. / Wöbse, HH: The preservation of historical cultural landscape elements in the FRG . Investigation of the importance and handling of Section 2, Principle 13 of the BNatSchG. Investigation on behalf of the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Hanover 1989.
  • Wöbse, HH: Protection of historical cultural landscapes. Contributions to spatial planning. Series of publications from the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Development at the University of Hanover 1994, Issue 37, ISBN 3-923285-30-2
  • Historical cultural landscape and monument preservation. Definition, demarcation, evaluation, elements, handling . Ed .: Working Group Theory and Teaching of Monument Preservation eV; Birgit Franz, Achim Hubel. Holzminden 2009. ISBN 978-3-940751-27-0

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. KLEKs - Kulturlandschaftselementekataster
  2. ^ " KuLaDig " database of the Rhineland Regional Association with information on cultural assets in the Rhineland and Hesse