National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
|State level||Federal agency within the portfolio of the United States Department of Commerce|
|Supervisory authority||United States Department of Commerce ( Department of Commerce )|
|founding||3rd October 1970|
|Headquarters||Silver Spring United States|
|Authority management||Neil Jacobs (interim)|
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ; National Ocean and Atmosphere Agency ) is the weather and oceanography authority of the United States . It was established on October 3, 1970 as an agency of the Department of Commerce to coordinate national ocean and atmosphere services. Its seat is in the federal capital Washington, DC
There are the following organizational units:
- National Weather Service (NWS)
National Ocean Service (NOS) with his
- National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
- National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
- National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS)
- Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR)
These sub-organizations are supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps , a uniformed unit that operates ships and aircraft and supports scientific missions. The NOAA Corps is one of the seven Uniformed Services of the United States .
NOAA is a member of the International Charter on Space and Natural Disasters .
Major NOAA programs include the OGP & Arctic Research Program (Climate Program Office), the National Sea Grant College Program, and the Ocean Exploration Program & NOAA's Undersea Research Program (Office of Ocean Exploration & Research). In the latter case, the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Atlantic was also examined in more detail.
Severe weather alarm radio
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Weather Radio (NWR), the weather radio from NOAA, can be listened to with appropriately equipped radio receivers and / or amateur radio equipment. Many receivers have an automatic alarm evaluation, similar to the German traffic radio. Such a weather radio system does not exist in Western Europe.
Free digital nautical charts
NOAA is required to provide complete, up-to-date digital nautical charts and corrections free of charge (to improve safety in the national coastal waters and in all waters for which NOAA creates its own nautical charts ). The standardized data sets that can be obtained via the Internet are partly updated daily or weekly. The passing on of these digital data collections is also not restricted as long as this takes place free of charge and in exclusively digital form.
The general obligations to equip and use suitable paper sea charts remain in place, so that formally it is only an additional offer. NOAA's digital maps are used on almost all US ships on which the permanent operation of a computer and a GPS receiver is technically justifiable (power supply, protected space for electronics); this reduced the number of incidents due to navigational errors and outdated nautical charts.
Contrary to expectations, sales of paper nautical charts increased parallel to the spread of digital nautical charts, especially for sea areas in which digital corrections lead to significant changes compared to paper charts. In particular, water sports enthusiasts and coastal boaters who do not make regular manual corrections to their nautical charts are encouraged to buy new compulsory equipment early on due to the obvious changes in their sailing area.
The satellites NOAA-1 to NOAA-19 belonging to the POES project of the NOAA authority are also referred to as NOAA. The NOAA satellites are LEO weather satellites of the TIROS satellite series, some of which have identical instruments with the European counterpart MetOp . However, the NOAA satellites have been productive for many years and the images are released for private use and for teaching and research purposes. A release for official and commercial weather services in Europe was only possible with the commissioning of MetOp via the EU organization EUMETSAT , because in return the NOAA authority was then also allowed to access data from the MetOp satellite. Amateur, weather and radio stations can use a decoder to automatically receive the image data sent to earth from the NOAA satellites using the APT process and are allowed to post the post-processed images on the Internet for non-commercial purposes.
The specialty of the NOAA satellites of the POES project is that they work in a polar orbit . Due to the low altitude of only around 820 kilometers, the resolution is much better than that of geostationary weather satellites such as GOES or its European counterpart Meteosat . In contrast, the low altitude reduces the instruments' field of vision so that large areas cannot be captured at the same time. In the course of a day, however, he sees almost the entire surface of the earth. Another weakness of the geostationary versus the polar orbit is that it runs parallel to the equator. Observations in the polar region and in the North Atlantic, the “weather kitchen” of Europe, are only possible from a large angle, which further reduces the quality of the images. These difficulties do not exist with a weather satellite in polar orbit.
Thanks to the higher resolution of the images, better observation of the polar and North Atlantic regions and by recording the measured variables of soil temperature and moisture distribution, the NOAA authorities were able to use the NOAA satellites to extend the reliable forecast interval from three to five days. Due to the improved intensity and accuracy of observation ("improvements in observational tools and analysis techniques"), the authority shows in a study that, contrary to many fears, the number of tropical cyclones did not increase in the North Atlantic during the 20th century.
Together with NASA , NOAA is developing a new generation of satellites for polar orbits in the JPSS ( Joint Polar Satellite System ) program, originally a civil part of the discontinued National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System . The Suomi NPP satellite, launched in 2011 , is seen as a bridge to the old generation of satellites. The first satellite JPSS-1 of the new series was launched on November 18, 2017.
In addition, NOAA also operates a series of geostationary weather satellites .
List of satellites
|Surname||begin||Starting place||rocket||Size / mass||Remarks||status|
|NOAA 1 (ITOS A)||December 11, 1970||Vandenberg SLC-2W||Delta-N6||1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 m||started with CEP 1||shut down|
|NOAA 2 (ITOS D)||October 15, 1972||Vandenberg SLC-2W||Delta 300||1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 m||started with AMSAT P2A||shut down|
|NOAA 3 (ITOS F)||November 6, 1973||Vandenberg SLC-2W||Delta 300||1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 m||shut down|
|NOAA 4 (ITOS G)||15th November 1974||Vandenberg SLC-2W||Delta-2310||1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 m||with AMSAT P2B ( OSCAR 7 ), Intasat||shut down|
|NOAA 5 (ITOS E2) (ex ITOS C)||July 29, 1976||Vandenberg SLC-2W||Delta-2310||1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 m||shut down|
|NOAA 6 (A)||June 27, 1979||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||shut down|
|NOAA B||May 29, 1980||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||False start|
|NOAA 7 (C)||June 23, 1981||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||shut down|
|NOAA 8 (E)||March 28, 1983||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||1712 kg||shut down|
|NOAA 9 (F)||December 12, 1984||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||1712 kg||shut down|
|NOAA 10 (G)||17th September 1986||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||1712 kg||shut down|
|NOAA 11 (H)||September 24, 1988||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||1712 kg||shut down|
|NOAA 12 (D)||May 14, 1991||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||1712 kg||shut down|
|NOAA 13 (I)||August 9, 1993||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||1712 kg||shut down|
|NOAA 14 (J)||December 30, 1994||Vandenberg SLC-3W||Atlas-F Star-37S-ISS||1712 kg||shut down|
|NOAA 15 (K)||May 13, 1998||Vandenberg SLC-4W||Titan-2 (23) G Star-37XFP-ISS||2232/1479 kg (take-off / orbit)||operational|
|NOAA 16 (L)||September 21, 2000||Vandenberg SLC-4W||Titan-2 (23) G Star-37XFP-ISS||2232/1479 kg (take-off / orbit)||Shut down in 2014|
|NOAA 17 (M)||June 24, 2002||Vandenberg SLC-4W||Titan-2 (23) G Star-37XFP-ISS||2232/1479 kg (take-off / orbit)||Shut down in 2013|
|NOAA 18 (N)||May 20, 2005||Vandenberg SLC-2W||Delta-7320-10C||1419 kg (orbit)||operational|
|NOAA 19 (N ')||February 6, 2009||Vandenberg SLC-2W||Delta-7320-10C||1419 kg (orbit)||operational|
|NOAA 20 (JPSS 1)||18th November 2017||Vandenberg SLC-2W||Delta II||2540 kg (start)||operational|
- Dr. Neil Jacobs. Retrieved June 8, 2020 .
- Official website of the National Weather Service
- Official website of the National Ocean Service ( Memento of the original dated May 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Official site of the National Marine Fisheries Service
- Official site of the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service
- Official website of NOAA Research
- As an agency of the US government, all publications are subject to the United States Code Chapter 17 (Copyright) Section 105 ( original text of the law ): "... no copyright (the authorship of the respective author or its office remains undisputed, but does not grant it any (prohibitive) rights ... ". Whatever the government or government agency publishes is by law public domain . This only applies to actual publications and not to unpublished findings.
- Access to the download of the official digital nautical charts
- Study: Better Observations, Analyzes Detecting Short-Lived Tropical Systems. In: noaanews.noaa.gov. August 11, 2009, archived from the original on August 15, 2009 ; accessed on September 10, 2019 (English): "No systematic change in the number of north Atlantic tropical cyclones during the 20th century"
- About JPSS - About JPSS Satellites. In: Website for the Joint Polar Satellite System. NOAA, accessed August 13, 2017 .
- Stephen Clark: Launch Schedule. Spaceflight Now, August 1, 2017, accessed August 13, 2017 .
- Gunter's Space Page: NOAA