During the November Revolution he was chairman of the Revolutionary Obleute of Berlin and, as a revolutionary socialist, companion of Karl Liebknecht in the Berlin Revolutionary Committee during the Spartacus uprising . In the early 1920s he was a co-founder of the KPD -related International Workers Aid (IAH), whose Western European office he headed from 1924 to 1935. For the KPD he was a member of the Berlin city council from 1929 to 1932 . After the National Socialists came to power in 1933, he emigrated to France, where he worked for Willi Münzenberg . After moving to the Soviet Union in 1935, he was arrested on November 4, 1936, along with other communists working for the IAH. He was initially sentenced to five years in a labor camp and deported to a Gulag camp in the RSFSR Far East Federal District . There he was arrested again in March 1938 for alleged sabotage, sentenced to death and shot.
- Ulla Plener : The mass terror: fictions, facts, consequences. In: Ulla Plener, Natalia Mussienko (HRSG.): Sentenced to the maximum penalty: death by shooting. Fatalities from Germany and German nationality in the Great Terror in the Soviet Union 1937/1938 ; Rosa Luxemburg Foundation ; Karl Dietz Verlag Berlin 2006 p. 151 ( PDF )
- Ulla Plener: Information from an NKVD file on the last journey and the death of German communists in the Soviet Union (1936-1939): W. Leow-Hofmann, H. Rogalla, J. Schneider, P. Scholze, H. Wilde. In: UTOPIEkreativ, issue 39/40, January / February 1994
- Hermann Weber , Andreas Herbst : German communists. Biographical Handbook 1918 to 1945 . 2nd, revised and greatly expanded edition. Dietz, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-320-02130-6 ( online [accessed January 4, 2013]).
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German politician (KPD)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 13, 1886|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Dresden|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 22, 1938|
|Place of death||Magadan|