The physical therapy combines medical treatments together, the natural reaction to external stimulus settlement use ( Greek φύσις physis , nature). The associated forms of therapy are also used by physiotherapy .
The effect and effectiveness of physical therapy can be explained with the stimulus-reaction principle, the physiological reactions of the body to external stimuli. A distinction is made between the following forms of response to the stimulus:
- direct effect (e.g. reddening of the skin )
- Counter-regulation / adaptation (e.g. reduction of pain or hearing sensitivity)
- long-term adaptation / conditioning (e.g. strengthening the muscles)
The forms of treatment in physical therapy are often divided into active and passive therapies. With the passive measures, the patient does not develop any activity or movement of his own. However, the body reacts to passive measures in the sense of the stimulus-reaction principle; changes occur z. B. the blood flow or blood pressure. Therefore, the distinction between active and passive forms of therapy in physical therapy does not make sense.
Forms of treatment
- Physiotherapy or physiotherapy
- Extension therapy (e.g. with a sling table )
- Occupational therapy
- Sports therapy
- Medical trainings therapy
- Thermotherapy ( heat therapy , cold therapy )
- Ultrasound therapy
- Phototherapy / PUVA
- Positioning drainage
Application and implementation
The main indication for physical therapy are pain and functional restrictions in the area of the locomotor system as well as some skin diseases. In particular, in orthopedics and trauma surgery as well as in rheumatology, physical therapy treatment measures are often used. As a rule, the therapeutic measures are carried out by members of the respective health professions as prescribed by a doctor.
The treatment can be prescribed and carried out in the form of individual therapies or as complex therapy. In complex therapy, various forms of physical therapy are combined. In the case flat rate system (Diagnosis Related Groups, DRG), appropriate “non-surgical therapeutic measures” are defined in Chapter 8 of the Operations and Procedure Code (OPS).
- Hubertus Averbeck: From cold water therapy to physical therapy. Reflections on people and at the time of the most important developments in the 19th century . European University Press, Bremen 2012, ISBN 978-3-86741-782-2 .
- Malte Bühring : Physiotherapy, physical therapy. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 1159–1161.
- C. Gutenbrunner, J. Glaesener: Rehabilitation, physical medicine and naturopathic treatment . Springer, Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-540-33411-8 , pp. 1-110.
- V. Stein, B. Greitemann: Rehabilitation in orthopedics and trauma surgery . Springer, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-20008-8 , pp. 9-95.
- Jacques Hindermeyer: History of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation. In: Illustrated History of Medicine. German arrangement by Richard Toellner a. a., Volume V, special edition Salzburg 1986, pp. 2578–2609.
- Josef Kowarschik: Physical therapy. Vienna 1957.
- C. Gutenbrunner, J. Glaesener: Rehabilitation, physical medicine and natural healing methods . Springer, Heidelberg 2007.
- Arnd Krüger : History of movement therapy, in: Preventive medicine . Heidelberg: Springer Loseblatt Collection 1999, 07.06, 1–22.
- Chapter 8 of the Operation and Procedure Key (OCS) ( Memento of the original from July 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.