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In medicine and anatomy, pronation ( Latin ) describes the inward rotation of the limbs . It is thus the countermovement to supination .

Pronation of the forearm

Pronation and supination of the human forearm

The pronation movement of the forearm is realized by rotating the radius (spoke) around the ulna (ulna). This movement is made possible by the proximal and distal radioulnar articulations . The thumb comes back inwards (medially), the hand is in the resting position and the palm is pointing down. This movement is primarily carried out by three muscles:

Pronation of the foot

Pronation and supination of the human foot

Pronation is a rotation of the foot around its longitudinal axis, in which the outer edge of the foot is raised and the inner edge of the foot is lowered without the heel moving with it. Pronation is also known as an inward twist or inward cant. The foot position in this direction is also known as eversion , the eversion angle is normally 0 °.

The pronation of the foot is a natural cushioning movement and a natural inward movement. The main responsible for the pronation of the foot are the peroneus longus and the peroneus brevis muscles . In so-called overpronation, the edge of the foot kinks inward very strongly and thus puts strain on the ligaments, tendons and joints. This pronation can have various causes, such as a foot deformity ( countersunk or flat feet ), obesity or excessive fatigue. Overpronation is also more likely to occur in novice runners because the supporting apparatus is not yet sufficiently trained. Heavy wear and tear in the medial area (mostly inside) can then be seen on the shoes. A underpronation , or supination called occurs less frequently. In supination, the load goes in the opposite direction. In the case of running shoes , this can be recognized by a higher level of wear in the lateral area (outside). This can be caused by a hollow foot .

Almost all running shoe manufacturers offer running shoe models for supinators, overpronators and neutral foot runners.

Overlay with other movements

The pronation of the foot is superimposed by abduction and dorsiflexion . This is related to the position of the axis of movement of the lower ankle joint . The superimposition of the three movements pronation, abduction and dorsiflexion is also known as eversion .