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European roller (Coracias garrulus)

European roller ( Coracias garrulus )

Over trunk : Neumünder (Deuterostomia)
Trunk : Chordates (chordata)
Sub-stem : Vertebrates (vertebrata)
Row : Land vertebrates (Tetrapoda)
Class : Birds (aves)
Order : Rockers
Scientific name
Forbes , 1884

The whackebirds (Coraciiformes) or whackebirds are an order of very diverse, predominantly tropical and very colorful birds , which have different ways of life. They only have one feature in common: the toes often deviate from the norm, they are partially fused together.


The Handbook of the Birds of the World lists the following six rocket families:

The order was traditionally even broader and contained other externally diverse families. Since the turn of the millennium, phylogenetic studies have initially shown that the Kurol ( Leptosomus discolor ) is not a sackbill, but is systematically isolated and that the remaining sackbirds formed a paraphyletic taxon in relation to the woodpeckers (Piciformes).

The family relationships according to Hackett et al. shows the following cladogram :


Bee-eater  (Meropidae)


Erdracken  (Brachypteraciidae)


Racken  (Coraciidae)


Kingfishers  (Alcedinidae)


Sawbacks  (Momotidae)


Todis  (Todidae)


Woodpecker birds  (Piciformes)


Hornbills  (Bucerotidae)


 Ground hornbills (Bucorvidae)


Hoopoes  (Upupidae)


Tree hops  (Phoeniculidae)


Trogons  (Trogoniformes)


Kurole  (Leptosomatiformes)

Template: Klade / Maintenance / Style

The monophyly of the sackbirds is preserved by the establishment of the new order Bucerotiformes with the families hornbills , ground hornbills , hoopoes and tree hops . Rocket birds and woodpecker birds are sister groups , the common taxon is sister group of the Bucerotiformes, all three together are sister taxons of the Trogons (Trogonidae). The Kurol is the sister species of the four aforementioned orders.


  1. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 6
  2. Per GP Ericson et al .: Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils . Biol. Lett. doi : 10.1098 / rsbl.2006.0523 PDF
  3. Hackett et al .: A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History . Science 27 June 2008: Vol. 320. no. 5884, pp. 1763–1768, doi : 10.1126 / science.1157704
  4. ^ Frank Gill and Minturn Wright: Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-7136-7904-2
  5. Wilfried Westheide & Reinhard Rieger : Special Zoology Part 2: Vertebrae or Skull Animals , 2nd edition. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg / Berlin 2009, page 462, ISBN 3-8274-2039-3
  6. John Harshman: Land Birds . Version June 27, 2008 in The Tree of Life Web Project

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