A presentation is a lecture on a topic that is given in a limited time (around 10–45 minutes, depending on the context). The most common forms are oral reports, specialist lectures at conferences, brief presentations at seminars or exercise presentations at school.
Lectures at school or a seminar are primarily about the reproduction of researched facts and thoughts, while specialist presentations at conferences usually deal with the lecturer's own research.
For (natural science) specialist congresses, a period of 15 to 20 minutes is the usual measure, and a little longer for invited papers . In the social, human and human sciences, lectures of 40–45 minutes are quite common. In school operations , the presentation can be a proof of performance in the form of an equivalent assessment of student performance . At universities, it is sometimes used as an examination for students to complete a module.
There are also presentations in a purely written form, for example as a short presentation (report) on a longer publication.
At the beginning of the presentation, information is given about the topic, the process and the duration. An understandable and interesting presentation does not lead to excessive demands or loss of attention .
As technical aids for Unit are posters, OHP , blackboard, increasingly, computer - presentation programs and video projector or interactive whiteboard to choose from. Notes on index cards with bullet points help with the preparation. Central theses and statements of the presentation should be on a thesis paper so that the audience can remember them in a possible follow-up discussion. A laser pointer can be used to point out details on transparencies and pictures.
Speaking - possibly freely - about a given topic in front of a group of classmates or fellow students is an important learning goal of school and university lessons. Since many students in German-speaking countries have great difficulties speaking in front of a seminar , practice presentations are nowadays already practiced in elementary school .
With regard to the presentation, most German-speaking educationalists still recommend formulating presentations in writing and then either reading them off or studying the transcript carefully before the lecture, although the speaking situation is particularly unusual. Often it is also the teachers or lecturers who request a record because they want to know in advance what will be discussed in the presentation in order to prepare for their own. On the other hand, some didacticians take the view that the presentation is fundamentally more beneficial if only key words are noted.
The latter is generally accepted in English-speaking countries, where free speech traditionally plays a far greater cultural role than e.g. B. in Germany (see e.g. Debating , Soapbox , Stand-up-Comedy ). In the United States , Canada and Australia in particular , the prerequisites for free speaking are already laid in pre-school education; H. as soon as the children can speak . The relevant method, which is maintained from preschool (3 and 4 year olds) on, is the show and tell . Show and tell (German: "show and tell") means that a child shows an object - usually brought from home - to the classmates gathered in a circle, talks about it for a few minutes and then answers any questions from classmates. In the elementary school there are structured, rules-oriented presentations with topics that the teacher specifies and for which the children, provided the school is equipped accordingly, already use tools such as PowerPoint .
A Korreferat is a Unit which is directly related to a previous keynote address while delivering an opinion or a supplement. For example, a counter-opinion can be held or questions that have remained open can be pointed out. A supplementary lecture usually takes less time than the main lecture, usually a maximum of 5 minutes.
In academic operations, a second review can also be used to describe a second review when assessing a scientific work.
- Frank Schätzlein: Lectures and presentations during studies and at school . Links and references to introductions, materials, checklists, evaluation criteria, etc. (for students, pupils and teachers)
- Rainer Bromme, Riklef Rambow: Recommendations for the preparation and oral presentation of presentations . (Text for students)
- Rainer Bromme, Riklef Rambow: Improving the oral presentation of presentations: a training goal and at the same time a contribution to the quality of teaching . (Text for teachers)
- How do I give an exciting short presentation? Basic knowledge as a multimedia lesson (GRIPS Bayerischer Rundfunk )
- Basic German course: Talking better ( Memento from May 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Multimedia lesson Telekolleg Bayerischer Rundfunk )
- ↑ Lukas C. Gundling: The presentation as an oral examination , in: Zeitschrift für Landesverfassungsrecht und Landesverwaltungsrecht (ZLVR), 4/2018, p. 131 ff.
- ↑ Gerd Presler, Jürgen Döhmann: Writing papers, giving papers: a guide. 2nd Edition. W. Fink, 2004, ISBN 3-7705-3713-0 .
- ↑ Presler, Döhmann; P. 17, 20.
- ↑ Katja Koch: From primary school to secondary school: The transition from the teacher's point of view . Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2001, ISBN 3-8100-3138-0 , p. 99.
- ↑ Björn Hochmann: Lectures in schools and universities: How to give a lecture: preparation and implementation. GRIN Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-640-41327-0 . Anke Braun: Bertelsmann. The large student lexicon. 2005/2006, ISBN 3-577-10267-5 , p. 304.
- ↑ Werner Sesink: Introduction to scientific work: Internet, word processing, presentation. 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-58191-1 , p. 219.
- ↑ Maik Philipp: Basic techniques of scientific work: Bibliographing - speaking - writing. 2007, p. 18.
- ↑ Elizabeth Claire Venn, Monica Dacy Jahn: Teaching and Learning in Preschool: Using Individually Appropriate Practices In Early Childhood Literacy Instruction. 2004, ISBN 0-87207-535-4 ; Linda Dacey, Rebeka Eston: Show and Tell: Representing and Communicating Mathematical Ideas in K-2 Classrooms. 2002, ISBN 0-941355-50-0 .
- ^ Ellen Finkelstein, Pavel Samsonov: PowerPoint for Teachers: Dynamic Presentations and Interactive Classroom Projects. 2008, ISBN 978-0-7879-9717-5 .
- ↑ What is a submission? .
- ↑ Leaflet for preparing a reference and for moderation in seminars -