Latch hood

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Helene Sedlmayr, the epitome of the “beautiful woman from Munich” wears the bar hood with traditional Munich costumes.
In addition to the bolt hood, brides were adorned with a myrtle wreath in the early 19th century .
Historic golden bolt hood
Bar hood (in a hat box), Augsburg around 1830/1840

The Riegelhaube is an elaborate headgear made with precious materials, worn by women of the wealthy middle class. It was mainly worn in and around Munich in the late 18th century and until the middle of the 19th century . In the beauty gallery of King Ludwig I is the portrait of Helene Sedlmayr , who is the epitome of the “beautiful woman from Munich” and is depicted with a bolted hood.

First evidence

The earliest evidence of a bolted hood is a Nymphenburg porcelain figure by the modeller Bustelli , dated 1755. This early form was not only in use in Munich, but in large parts of southern Germany. It covers the back of the head up to the ears and is characterized by a loop in the neck.


As early as the Middle Ages, wearing a hood was the proverbial sign that a woman was married. Their shape was subject to the respective fashion. In Old Bavaria, the rococo bonnet, which in its original form was made of white linen and almost completely enclosed the hair, developed into a smaller, bourgeois bonnet shape, which was initially lined with lace and attached to the head with a bow. The ribbon bow in the neck gradually developed from a functional bow to a mere symbol of a bow, as is typical of the latch hood. With the abolition of the class dress code at the end of the 18th century, citizens were allowed to wear textiles knitted with silver and gold on the street. Hoods were now made from precious brocade and velvet fabrics and embroidered with pearls and threads made of precious metals. The size of the headgear was reduced more and more at the same time, it was only held in place with silver “bonnet pins”.

It was not until the early 19th century that the very delicate shape of the bolt hood that is known today emerged. It is worn on the hair pinned up at the back of the head. The parting should be covered by her together with the braided plait wound into a topknot. It consists of a stiff cardboard base that brings out the precious materials well, a padding and a layer of brocade , velvet , silver or gold fabric, more or less embroidered with silver or gold cantilles (bouillon), lahn, sequins, etc. . Ä. In popular parlance, the bolt hood was also known as the “goat udder” because of its two downward-pointing tenons. During the Empire and Biedermeier periods , it was even worn with fashionable clothing. August Lewald wrote in 1835: "The very popular bolted bonnet, which looks particularly dainty in the face of young Munich women, is a very peculiar headdress that does not show any resemblance to any other in Germany."

No two bolt hoods are the same. A special form is the bolt hood embroidered with blue and black pearls on a black background. Presumably silver hoods were worn by unmarried women, gold by married women and black or black and blue by widowed women. Bar hoods are typical of traditional Munich costumes in the early 19th century , but glued-in manufacturer's labels show that bar hoods were also used for example. B. were manufactured in Augsburg or Regensburg . This means that wearing bar hoods radiated into the Munich area and became fashionable in other cities in Bavaria.

The bolt hood as a fashionable accessory

In 1816, Christian Müller described that the Munich with "white dazzling wide sleeves, [to] the colored, solid-adapting, under the bust with silver chains and fumbling (offal), often entwined camisole, and finally the keys pressed on the brown forelocks golden or the silver Faustina bonnet ”, which today is known as the“ Münchner Gwand ”, would have looked very attractive. He complains that "these nice children" exchange their "tasteful national bourgeois costume for the robes of the demoiselles and fräuleins, and at most still keep the bonnet, although it cannot be denied that this connection looks quite good with many".

The bolt hood for an empress

Müller continues: “I call the Munich bar hoods Faustina hats because I have seen several busts of the younger Faustina who had a very similar headdress. The Empress Maria Luise found her so beautiful and delicate on her visit to Munich that she took several with her to Paris. The richest are of gold, embroidered with real pearls ”.


In 1845, the satirical article On the history of the bolt caps appeared in Die Fliegende Blätter , in which the question was mockingly ironically raised as to whether the bolt caps go back to early ancient Egyptian headdresses.


  • Barbara Brückner: The Munich bolt hood. In: Bayerisches Jahrbuch für Volkskunde 1958, pp. 39–52.
  • Volker D. Laturell : Costumes in and around Munich. Munich 1998
  • Christian Müller: Munich under King Maximilian Joseph I. Mainz 1816
  • Rita Szeibert-Sülzenfuhs: The people of Munich and their costumes: history of traditional city costumes as a mirror of the female middle class. Publishing house Bayernland, Dachau 1997
  • Carl Wibmer: Medical topography and ethnography of the k. Capital and residence city of Munich. Munich 1862

Web links

Commons : Riegelhauben  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Miesbacher & Riegelhaube ( Memento of the original from February 1, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved February 24, 2013 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. ^ Christian Müller: Munich under King Maximilian Joseph I. Mainz 1816
  3. ^ Christian Müller: Munich under King Maximilian Joseph I. Mainz 1816
  4. Unknown: On the history of the bolt caps , in: Fliegende Blätter , Volume 1, Booklet, 20, p. 159. 1845. (Transcription)