Roger de Moulins
In autumn 1177 at the latest, he was elected to succeed the deceased Grand Master Joubert . Right at the beginning of his tenure, his order took part in the Battle of Montgisard , in which an invasion of Sultan Saladin on the Kingdom of Jerusalem was brilliantly repulsed.
Against the initial resistance of Pope Alexander III. In the same year, Roger had the active, armed struggle against the pagans formally included in the rules of the order as a goal of the order. The expansion of the field of activity of the Order of St. John, begun by Grand Master Raymond du Puy , from the mere lodging and care of pilgrims, the poor and the sick to a fighting knightly order was thus completed. The military strategic ambitions of the Johanniter made them rivals of the Knights Templar . Pope Alexander III however, managed to mediate between Roger and the Templar Grand Master Eudes de Saint-Amand , so that in 1179 they settled their disputes by contract.
In 1184 he toured Europe with Arnold von Toroga , Grand Commander of the Templars , and Heraclius of Caesarea , Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem . He established the Johanniter in England , France and Germany . On the way back he supported the 1185 Norman -König Wilhelm II. Of Sicily in his attack on Thessaloniki .
During his time as Grand Master, the Johanniter became more involved in the politics of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Roger opposed Rainald of Chatillon and Guido of Lusignan and initially even refused to hand over his key to the royal treasure when Guido was crowned in 1186. He took part in the Battle of Cresson on May 1, 1187 against a superior force under Saladin's son al-Afdal . Like most of the participants on the Christian side, Roger was killed in this battle.
In the hectic period that followed, when Saladin conquered a large part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Wilhelm Borel initially temporarily succeeded Rogers. He served for a short time in 1187 as an overseer for the Johanniter. This was followed by Hermangard d'Asp , who was the same until 1189/90, but is now the ninth Grand Master in the order. A new grand master was not elected until 1189/90, during the Third Crusade , with Garnier of Nablus .
- See Delaville Le Roulx, p. 86.
- Joseph Marie Antoine Delaville Le Roulx: Les Hospitaliers En Terre Sainte Et Chypre. 1100-1310. BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009, ISBN 978-1-113-15960-1 , pp. 83 ff.
- Louis de Boisgelin: Ancient and Modern Malta, and the History of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem . G & J Robinson, London 1804. Volume 2, p. 18.
- Pierre d'Avity / Johann Ludwig Gottfried : Archontologiae Cosmicae Book III. Frankfurt am Main, 1628, p. 33 (online here) .
- Roger des Moulins at cilialacorte.com ( This link contains incorrect dates )
- Roger de Moulins at smom-za.org
Grand Master of the Order of St. John
|SURNAME||Roger de Moulins|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Grand Master of the Order of St. John|
|DATE OF BIRTH||12th Century|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 1, 1187|
|Place of death||Cresson|