A shooting master is a miner who is exclusively occupied with shooting work underground . He belongs to the group of people authorized to shoot in a mine. In contrast to a shotfirer the shooting champion may not hired house standing.
Basics and history
Although shooting was introduced in mining as early as the 17th century, it was not until several decades later that there was a consequent new regulation of the blasting system in mining. Up until the beginning of the 20th century there were repeated serious accidents in several mines due to improper execution of the shooting work. A new version of the Mountain Police Ordinance in the 1930s particularly concerned the regulation of shooting work in underground mining. In particular for the coal mining industry and the firedamp pits there, it was required that the shooting work be carried out by specially trained shooting masters.
Personal and professional aptitude
Miners who are to work as shooting masters must meet certain requirements. You must be suitable for this task both personally and professionally. The same demands are made on the personal suitability of the shooting master as on those of the other authorized shooting persons. In order to prove the technical suitability, the candidate must first successfully complete a tusk training and acquire the tusk license. In addition, he must have successfully taken part in a training course approved by the Mining Authority. Before he can complete this training to become an authorized person to shoot, he must provide evidence of operational experience that lasts between four and twelve months, depending on the mountain area. The various activities in the mine such as local driving , extraction operations and maintenance work must be learned. The extensive training is necessary so that the shooting master also learns the necessary mining expertise and necessary skills to be able to carry out the extensive practical shooting work. For this reason, the syllabus for training to become a shooting master is much more extensive than for a shooting tusk. The training for this also takes longer. In some mountain areas, prospective shooting masters have the opportunity to work for a certain time as a shooting assistant with an experienced shooting master. After completing the training, the theoretical and practical test takes place. After successfully completing the exam, the applicant can now be used as a shooting master at the respective mine . For this he is appointed by the responsible operator and reported by name and obliged to the mining authority or mining district official .
Shooting masters are authorized and qualified to carry out shooting work underground at all operating points where shooting is permitted. For their work they have to keep a shooting book in which they enter the explosives they have received and used.
After several months of practical work and an additional course in blasting technology for training shooting masters, which the respective graduate must have passed with good success, shooting masters can be appointed training shooting masters. These instruct the shooting masters and prospective shooting masters underground and support the shooting enthusiast in his work.
- European Coal and Steel Community (ed.): The vocational training in hard coal mining in the countries of the Community. Luxembourg 1956, pp. 98-104.
- Mountain Police Ordinance for the hard coal mines in the administrative districts of the Prussian Higher Mining Office in Breslau from May 1, 1934. Verlag Kattowitz, Druck Gauverlag NS Schlesien, 1934, pp. 132, 134, 136, 138, 140.
- G. Lathan: Drilling and shooting in mining. Volume II Shooting, Fachbuchverlag Leipzig, Leipzig 1958, pp. 58–62.
- Heinz Walter Wild: Invention and expansion of blasting work in mining. In: Association of Friends of Mining in Graubünden (ed.), Bergknappe , No. 30, 8th year, November 1984, pp. 14-21.
- Commemorative publication for the 40th anniversary of the Association of Technical Officials of Upper Silesia. Phönix-Verlag Carl Siwinna, Berlin and Beuthen 1930, pp. 105-108, 322.
- K. Hatzfeld: The new regulation of the mountain police regulations for the hard coal mining. In: Glückauf, Berg- und Hüttenmännische magazine. Association for Mining Interests in the Upper Mining District Dortmund (Ed.), No. 33, 71st year, August 17, 1935, pp. 773–778.
- Law on explosive substances (Sprengstoffgesetz-SprengG). In the version of September 10, 2002, last amended on August 7, 2013, Federal Law Gazette I p. 3518, 3154, §§ 7 + 8.
- W. Schlueter: The police regulations on explosives in mining. In: Glückauf, Berg- und Hüttenmännische magazine. Association for Mining Interests in the Upper Mining District Dortmund (Ed.), No. 2, 72nd year, January 11, 1936, pp. 36–42.
- Mines were referred to as firedamp pits when bad weather occurred. Which mine was designated as a firedamp pit was the responsibility of the responsible mining authority. Every mine in the district of the Dortmund Oberbergamt was regarded as a firedamp pit. (Source: NA Herold: Worker Protection in the Prussian Mountain Police Regulations. )
- The training comprises ten days of instruction, each with eight hours of training. Both theoretical knowledge and practical skills are imparted. As training content z. B. Knowledge of detonators, detonating explosives, various types of intrusion during blasting, rules for blasting and keeping the shooting book, drilling holes and measuring the charges. Practical skills are e.g. B. Resistance measurements with an ohmmeter, the effects of short circuits, testing the blasting machines and carrying out the various types of shooting work. (Source: European Coal and Steel Community (ed.): Vocational training in hard coal mining in the countries of the Community. )
- The training comprises three days of instruction, each with eight hours of training. Essentially, questions related to the shooting work are repeated. Further training contents are the tasks and activities of the master shooting instructor. In addition, practical instructions are given to candidates for target shooting or shooting master. (Source: European Coal and Steel Community (ed.): Vocational training in hard coal mining in the countries of the Community. )
- In the former GDR there was also the chief shooting master, who was the shooting master's superior in addition to the shooting climber. (Source: G. Lathan: Drilling and shooting in mining. )