Hatching or mountain lines are a method of representing the terrain in topographic maps ( maps ). Specially arranged and designed lines illustrate the inclination or shadow of a terrain shape. Such hatching can be found above all in historical maps of the 19th century that were produced using lithography or copperplate engraving .
Embankment hatches run in the direction of the steepest slope ( fall line ) and vary in length and width. The stronger the gradient, the stronger and denser the hatching will be. Shadow hatches simulate a fall of shadow by illuminating the area from the northwest.
Hatching gives an extremely vivid picture of the terrain, but it also has disadvantages:
- Exact height information is not legible, it must be shown separately by height points.
- In densely shaded areas ( steep slopes , high mountains) it is difficult to find additional information (paths, buildings).
- The gradient is emphasized too much on the maps, creating a stepped impression of the terrain.
Because of these disadvantages, they were replaced on large-scale maps in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries by contour lines or hillshading or a combination of both. In small-scale maps, the hatching is often replaced by a colored elevation (see regional color ).
- Terrain (cartography)
- Special cards from the 19th century
- Topographic map of Switzerland (shaded areas in the "Swiss manner")
- Johann Georg Lehmann (geodesist) ( Lehmann's hatches )
- Peter Kohlstock: Cartography . 2nd edition, Schöningh, Paderborn 2010. ISBN 978-3-506-71710-8 . P. 90