A speech disorder or a speech defect is the inability to articulate speech sounds correctly and fluently. It is a disturbance in the realization of phonetic speech norms. In contrast to the language disorder , only the motor and articulatory skills are impaired here, but the language ability itself is intact. Speech and speech disorders can also occur together.
Disorders of the flow of speech
A speech flow disturbance is a disturbance of speech , which is characterized by interruptions in the opening sequence, breaks, repetition, and bays.
Disturbances of the flow of speech include stuttering (disturbance of the flow of speech with pauses, inserts, repetitions of sounds, syllables or words), rumbling (slurred pronunciation due to speaking too quickly and swallowing sounds), mutism (partial or complete failure to speak about one) relatively long period after largely completed language development) and logophobia (persistent and exaggerated fear reaction in speaking situations).
Speech motor disorders
Dysarthria, also known as dysarthrophonia or dysarthropneumophonia, is a disorder of speech motor skills, phonation and speech breathing caused by damage to cranial nerves or motor brain areas ( motor cortex , basal ganglia , cerebellum ).
This is understood to mean pronunciation disorders as a result of diseases of the central pathways and nuclei of the nerves that are significantly involved in the speech process. The causes are usually traumatic brain injuries , tumors, inflammatory diseases or cerebrovascular disorders .
Dysarthrias can manifest themselves through indistinct, slurred articulation , changes in the quality of the voice, the speech melody or the speech tempo, as well as disturbances in the rhythm or dynamics of speech.
The maximum form with complete inability to produce speech-like sounds is called anarthria .
Dyslalien ( Greek dys 'bad', lalein 'talk'; German also outdated: stammering) denote developmental inhibitions in the formation of sounds. A distinction is made between phonetic and phonological disorders. The former represent a speech disorder, the latter a speech disorder, which is assigned to language development disorders . In Dyslalien sounds or combinations of sounds are changed (distortion), omitted ( elision ) or by other phonemes replaced (Paralalie) .
In the case of phonetic disorders, the actual formation of the sound is affected. Articulation fails because the associated motor complex is impaired. Here you can find i. d. R. Distortions and Elusions. A well-known example of dyslalia in the sense of a speech disorder is the lisping pronunciation of the sound S , scientifically called sigmatism . The specific phonetic disorders are named by the corresponding Greek letter with the ending "-zism", e.g. B. rhotacism in / R /, gammacism in / G /, cappacism in / K / etc.
In the case of phonological disorders, on the other hand, linguistic systematic processes are impaired. The sounds can be formed in isolation, but are not correctly perceived and incorrectly stored, so their type and location are not fully recorded. Here it comes from a. to parallels, often within the same group of sounds (K / T / P, G / D / B, M / N / NG, L / R, F / S / CH1 / SCH). The language systematic processes include a. the differentiation of sounds (sound discrimination), the recognition of a sound within a syllable, a word or a sentence (sound analysis), the joining of the individual components (sound synthesis) and the sound sequence memory.
The distinction as to whether speech sounds cannot be formed or whether they are not used correctly in their meaning-distinguishing function is particularly important with regard to the promotion, but does not mean that the disturbances cannot also occur in combination.
Dysglossia are disorders of articulation caused by changes in the organs of speech. Causes for this can be: congenital deformities, paralysis or injuries to the lips, teeth, tongue, palate and throat.
- Ulrike Franke: Logopedic hand dictionary . 8th edition, Reinhardt, Munich / Basel, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8252-0771-7 .
- Günter Wirth, Martin Ptok, Rainer Schönweiler: Speech disorders, speech disorders, children's hearing disorders. Textbook for doctors, speech therapists and speech therapists . 5th edition, Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-7691-1137-0 .
- Verbal developmental dyspraxia
- Communication disorder
- Psycholinguistic analysis of speech disorders in children
- Recognize risks and disorders in language development at an early stage - kindergesundheit-info.de: independent information service from the Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA)