|Brassica rapa subsp. rapa f. teltowiensis|
Teltow turnips ( Brassica rapa L. subsp. Rapa f. Teltowiensis ) are a special form of turnip . They are named after the Teltow , the Brandenburg landscape from which they come. They are also called small turnip , Märkische beet or turnip Petrovsky called. May , autumn , stubble and Bavarian turnips are also very closely related .
The Teltower turnips differ from other turnips in their size (length approx. 5 cm, diameter 1.5 to 3 cm), slender cone shape, raised transverse stripes, secondary roots, which are mainly arranged in two opposing flat longitudinal grooves, and their grayish- to brownish white color. The beet pulp is yellowish. The seeds can germinate for 4–5 years. One gram of seeds is about 370 grains. The beet has a radish-like taste.
The original regions of origin of the Teltower turnips were Poland and Finland . In the 18th and 19th centuries, they were considered a popular delicacy. Not only did Goethe and Kant have them supplied, they were also known at the French court. In the GDR times, the plant was hardly grown. As part of the return to regional specialties, cultivation and consumption are increasing again. The association pro agro had the name Teltower Rübchen protected as a trademark at the patent office in 1993. In 1998, a support association for the Teltower Rübchen e. V. founded. The turnips were presented again for the first time at the 1999 Green Week .
After Frederick the Great , the beet was introduced in Brandenburg and Pomerania in 1770 to make sandy soils usable for livestock farming. The method came from an English farmer.
Cultivation and harvest
Teltower turnips are mainly sown at the end of August as a second crop after fruit to a depth of 1 to 2 cm (with irrigation) or 2–2.5 cm (without irrigation) directly on the cultivated area and harvested in October / November. The first sowing is possible from mid-March to early April. The stand density is approx. 40 plants per m² with a row distance of 20 to 25 cm and a distance in the row of 8 to 12 cm. They need nutrient-poor sandy soils in order to be able to develop their particularly delicate taste. Otherwise they do not make any special demands on the floor. The beets harvested in autumn develop the best quality if the beets are not allowed to grow larger than about 5 cm in diameter. The yield is approximately 2.2 kg / m². These beets can be stored very well. For household use, they are simply laid in clean sand.
Teltower turnips can be used raw in salads and cooked as a soup or side dish.
In the classic preparation, they are steamed whole or halved with sugar caramelized in butter, deglazed with meat broth, creating a concentrated, dark sauce that is lightly thickened with a little flour.
- Bernhard Brückner, Ilona Schonhof, R. Schroedter: An underutilized traditional specialty. Teltow Turnips . In: Acta Horticulturae , Vol. 752 (2007), pp. 203-208,
- Hanna Schöllkopf in: Geschichte mit Pfiff , 1999, issue 3, - End of a literary duet, 2005, pp. 20f.
- Allgemeine Hotel- und Gaststätten-Zeitung , No. 42 of October 20, 2001, p. 63,
- Frederick the Great in: Hinterlassene Werke , 1788, p. 129f, http://www.friedrich.uni-trier.de/de/hinterendung/5/129/
- G. Vogel: Vegetable Biographies, Part: 43: Teltower Rübchen . In: TASPO Gartenbaumagazin , vol. 8 (1996), May, p. 51,
- Johannes Böttner : Garden book for beginners . 22nd edition. Verlag Trowitsch, Frankfurt / Oder 1940, p. 281.
- Rudolf Buro et al .: Joy in the garden . VEB Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin 1978, p. 235.
- W. Neubert: Teltower Rübchen . In: Deutsches Magazin für Garten- und Blumenkunde , vol. 28 (1875), p. 285.
- Henriette Davidis : Practical cookbook for the ordinary and fine kitchen , 1898, p. 104, and other historical cookbooks
- Günter Duwe: Das Teltower Rübchen, Teltower Stadt-Blatt Verlags- und Presse, Teltow 2005, ISBN 978-3-9809313-4-2
- Sabine Herre: Crayfish, turnips and peat snakes: Germany's regional specialties have been rediscovered. Klett-Cotta Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-608-93758-9
- Ursula Heinzelmann: Experience food: From the scent of the strawberry and the flavor of the Teltower turnip. Scherz Verlag, Frankfurt 2006, 2nd edition, ISBN 978-3-502-15013-8