The Theater Education is an independent discipline that deals between the areas Theater and Education moves. In addition to Hans Martin Ritter and others, Hans-Wolfgang Nickel is considered to be its founder.
Originally committed to school and amateur theater, the field of theater education today stretches from the
- Work on hot spots and issues (such as addiction and violence prevention projects, integrative work, etc. (see also Art in the Social )) through the
- Development of independent theater projects (e.g. in collaboration with laypeople and actors),
- Teaching in schools and drama schools,
- Content-related work (e.g. chemistry lessons illustrated by the means of theater, language training) to
- Jobs in business (personnel development, rhetoric / body language, motivational training, etc.),
- Teaching special theater methods as well
- Scenic forms of work such as corporate theater or forum theater ( Augusto Boal ).
- Furthermore, many theaters now employ theater educators, whose task it is to develop and expand the contact between theater and audience. For example, student performances are organized and prepared or followed up with the classes, public discussions and discussion forums are established and so-called youth clubs (theater with young amateurs under the conditions of a theater operation) are offered.
In the theater pedagogical process, numerous fields of learning can be designed which enable the theater pedagogue to challenge and encourage the participants in their personal development and a group in their structural development. The weighting of the aesthetic, group-dynamic, content-related and pedagogical components varies greatly.
What all the activities mentioned have in common is that theater educators usually work situation-oriented and always use the medium (theater) play as a vehicle to achieve the respective goals. For the participants, it is hoped that this will give them direct access to their own ideas and impulses and an increase in communication and interaction with regard to themselves and their (social and cultural) environment.
In the last few years the profession of "theater pedagogue" has developed as a separate job description. It includes both artistic and educational aspects. With regard to qualifications, there are five core competencies:
- Leadership skills
- artistic competence
- organizational competence
- mediating competence
- theoretical competence
To a concretization of the term resp. Various developments have contributed to the definition of the individual science, such as the establishment of institutionalized training courses, the development of a special dictionary, the publication of a specialist journal (ZfTP - Korrespondenzen), the establishment of professional associations and the adoption of the Convention on the Conduct and Ethics of Theater Teachers and theater pedagogues (ÜVET) in 2011.
The SAFARI model
The SAFARI model was developed by theater pedagogue Gabriele Czerny. Behind every letter there is a principle of theater education. They are interdependent and provide the theater pedagogical framework.
S = fabric
The material serves as a stimulus for the theater play. It must be carefully examined by the educational professional to determine the most important characteristics. This investigation forms the basis for all further impulses. The material should appeal to the children's imagination, move them to sensual and physical presentations and stimulate them to self-reflection.
A = start
Before attempting a text, you should do warm-up exercises for body, breath, voice, rhythm, space and movement with the children. The aim is to develop a feeling for your own body so that the children can get to know it in different ways.
F = figure
The children should have the opportunity to put themselves in other characters. Through fantasy or dream journeys, the children can not only find relaxation, but also transform themselves into what they have remembered (e.g. “Do you remember how the waves rushed?”).
A = action
This is mainly about improvisation. The focus is on the children's creativity and spontaneity. Entire scenes can then be developed from the improvisations.
R = reflection
Previous experiences with history are taken up. The children can now think of their own story.
I = staging
The improvised scenes now become a coherent story. All children should participate in the presentation. The movement plays a central role here for the expressiveness of the scenes. The language of the children should also be encouraged, so there is the opportunity for both solo and choral text passages.
Education and training to become a theater teacher
The training course for the profession of theater pedagogue is not regulated by state requirements. The following forms of education and training can be found:
- Theater pedagogy is taught in undergraduate or postgraduate courses at universities and technical colleges and leads to a diploma, bachelor's or master's degree.
- Theater pedagogy is taught at certified institutes as a one to four-year advanced training course in accordance with the framework guidelines of the Federal Association of Theater Pedagogy (BuT), which are oriented towards university courses. A distinction is made between two recognized qualifications:
- the basic advanced training (at least 600 teaching hours). It is offered part-time and is aimed primarily at people who would like to integrate theater pedagogy into their existing job description (e.g. open youth work). Frequently, the institutes for basic advanced training give the title of "game leader" which is not, however, binding.
- the training to become a “theater pedagogue BuT®” (at least 1700 units). It is offered in four models:
- As advanced training following the basic training (at least 1100 units)
- Part-time as integrated full training (basics and structure in one) spread over two to four years
- As a full-time training course, 1700 units compressed in one year
- As a full-time training, significantly more than 1700 teaching units in two to four years.
The title “Theater Pedagogue / In BuT®” is protected as a word mark and may only be used by those who have completed advanced or full training. In terms of content, it is comparable to the diploma / bachelor's degree in the postgraduate course.
- Theater pedagogy centers (TPZ) have established themselves in many German cities that also offer theater pedagogy in shorter-term advanced training courses.
- Fu Li Hofmann: Theater-pedagogical acting training. One try. Transcript, Bielefeld 2014, ISBN 978-3-8376-3009-1
- Jessica Höhn: Theater Education. Basics, target groups, exercises . Henschel, Leipzig 2015. ISBN 978-3-89487-776-7
- Hans Martin Ritter : Word and Reality on the Stage. LIT, Münster 1997, 2nd edition 2003, 3rd edition 2014, ISBN 3-8258-3128-0
- Hans Martin Ritter: added time. Essays on questions of theater aesthetics and theater pedagogy. Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-8442-9577-1
- Christoph Nix , Dietmar Sachser, Marianne Streisand (eds.): Lessons 5 theater education. Verlag Theater der Zeit, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-942449-39-7
- Hans Hoppe: Theater and Education. Basics, criteria, models of educational theater work. LIT, Münster 2003, 2nd edition 2011, ISBN 3-8258-7130-4
- Hans Martin Ritter: Speaking on the stage. Henschel, Berlin 1999, new edition 2009, ISBN 978-3-89487-323-3
- Jürgen Weintz: theater education and acting. Aesthetic and psychosocial experience through role work. Schribri, Berlin / Milow 2007, ISBN 3-937895-64-7
- Tanja Bidlo: Theater Education. Introduction. Oldib, Essen 2006
- Marianne Streisand, Ulrike Hentschel, Andreas Poppe, Bernd Ruping (eds.): Generations in conversation. Archeology of Theater Education I. Schibri, Berlin / Milow 2005
- Hans Martin Ritter, Ulrike Henschel: Developments and perspectives in play and theater education . Schibri, Berlin / Milow 2003, ISBN 3-933978-83-1
- Gerd Koch , Marianne Streisand (Hrsg.): Dictionary of theater pedagogy. Schibri, Berlin / Milow 2003
- Felix Rellstab : Handbook of theater plays. Volume 4, Theater Education. Stutz Druck AG, CH-Wädenswil 2000
- Hans Martin Ritter: The gestural principle at Bertolt Brecht. Prometh, Cologne 1986, ISBN 3-922009-84-0
- Raimund Pousset: Concise dictionary of early childhood education. Cornelsen, ISBN 978-3-589-24863-6
- Kristin Linklater: Voice masterpiece: Developing and maintaining a natural instrument 5th edition, Irmela Beyer (translator), Michael Petermann (translator). Ernst Reinhardt Verlag, Munich, 2019, ISBN 978-3-497-02902-0
- Oliver Bidlo (Ed.): Thepakos . Interdisciplinary journal for theater and theater education. Appears three times a year, Oldib, Essen
- Theater Education e. V., Federal Association of Theater Education e. V., BAG Spiel + Theater e. V. (Hrsg.): Journal for theater education . Appears every six months. Schibri, Berlin / Milow,