heat protection

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The thermal insulation in the building industry as part of the field of physics is divided into the areas of winter heat protection and heat protection in summer.

Winter heat protection

The winter heat protection is used to ensure a sufficiently high surface temperature on the inner surfaces of the components during the heating season and thus to exclude surface condensation and mold growth in the normal indoor climate in living spaces . Surface condensate occurs when the temperature of the wall surface is below the dew point temperature . Freedom from mold is guaranteed in accordance with the definition in DIN 4108 if the relative humidity on the component surface does not exceed 85%. The values ​​to be complied with, described by the thermal resistance R th in m² · K / W, are defined as minimum thermal insulation in DIN 4108. Winter thermal insulation also serves to define component constructions that limit heat loss through transmission to such an extent that the limit values ​​set out in the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) can be complied with. These are described by the heat transfer coefficient , the so-called U-value (formerly k-value) in W / (m² · K).

Summer heat protection

Exemplary embodiment: Summer heat protection by shading the window areas on the south side of a building over 2 floors

The summer heat protection limits the heating of rooms caused by solar radiation to such an extent that a comfortable room climate is guaranteed. In accordance with the provisions of the Energy Saving Ordinance , the use of air conditioning systems should be avoided if possible.

Measures of summer heat protection
  • Component constructions that reduce the energy input into buildings:
    • Self-shading of the window areas of a building (e.g. from cantilevered balconies)
    • Sun protection elements assigned to windows (e.g. roller blinds, blinds, awnings and shutters or other shading). Shading outside a window is much more efficient than inside.
    • Infrared reflection of the glass pane to reduce the heat input into the room. Subsequently applied sun protection films also work .
  • massive component constructions that buffer solar heat gains through high storage masses.
  • increased air exchange rates in the cooler hours of the day in order to dissipate the energy introduced into the building.
  • if other measures are not sufficient, the heat has inside the building by mechanical cooling or thermo-active dissipated be

The summer heat protection is also regulated in DIN 4108 and is influenced by the following factors according to the standard: the dimensions of the room, the orientation and size of the windows, the type of glazing , the sun protection , the ventilation behavior, internal heat sources (e.g. personal warmth, Waste heat from computers or lighting) as well as the heat storage capacity of the building materials used (interior and exterior walls, ceilings, insulation material in the roof).

See also


  • Kai Schild, Wolfgang M. Willems: Thermal insulation (detailed knowledge of building physics) . Springer publishing house.

Web links

Wiktionary: Thermal insulation  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations