Oil unit

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Physical unit
Unit name Oil unit
Physical quantity (s) Energy , internal energy , chemical energy
Formula symbol
In SI units
Derived from Calorific value of oil
See also: coal unit , gasoline equivalent

The oil unit (OE) is a unit of measurement for the amount of energy that is released when one kilogram of crude oil is burned . It is also oil equivalent called (toe), or oil equivalent , English oil equivalent (oe) , energy (heating) also specifically petroleum equivalent . It measures the energy that is available in the form of heating fuels or the energy consumption in combustion processes, for example in electricity generation. For practical reasons, toe is often used as the basic unit, i.e. the amount of energy from the combustion of one ton of crude oil.

Oil unit in relation to weight

The energy consumption is usually given for practical reasons in millions or billions of tonnes of oil equivalent, sometimes in barrels . Common spellings for this are

  • 1 toe = 1000 ÖE
  • ktoe (kiloton oil units) (1 kiloton = 1000 tons),
  • Mtoe (megaton of oil units) (1 megaton = 1 million tons),
  • Gtoe (for gigatonne oil units) (1 gigatonne = 1 billion tons)


  • 1 ÖE = 41.868 MJ (Ö) = 10,000 kcal = 11.63  kWh ≈ 1.428  SKE (S)
  • 1 Mtoe = 11.63 TWh
  • 1 SKE (S) = 0.7 OE = 7,000 kcal = 29.3076 MJ = 8.141 kWh

per year:

  • 1 ÖE per year corresponds to an average power of 1.328 W.
(Ö)The density of crude oil fluctuates between 0.8 and 1 kg / l - when comparing with crude oil, one generally calculates with a density of 0.883 kg / l, i.e. 41.9 MJ / kg calorific value
(S)The hard coal unit (SKE) is used almost exclusively in German publications and can still be found there frequently

Oil unit in barrel (volume)

Barrels of oil equivalant (boe, barrel of oil equivalent ) is a unit of measure used by oil and gas companies in their financial reports tosummarize oil and gas reserves and production rates in a number. One boe corresponds to one barrel of crude oil (approx. 159 l) or 6000 cubic feet of natural gas, since the energy content of 1000 cubic feet of natural gas corresponds to one sixth of the energy content of a barrel of oil.

Heating oil equivalent

Heating oil equivalent is used to carry out comparative calculations independent of the heating fuel. In general, the reference to one liter of EL heating oil (volume delivery quantity) is used. The hard coal unit (SKE) is common in energy technology (comparison of power plant performance), the heating oil equivalent in construction and heating technology (comparison of heating systems, thermal insulation, building shapes, etc.).

fuel Calorific value
kWh (J) / kg
Calorific value
MJ (J) / kg
Calorific value
MWh / m³
Raw density
kg / dm 3
Commercial density (D)
kg / m 3
Energy -
Trade volume
Storage volume
Heating oil EL 11.8 42.6 (Ö) 10 0.84 0.840 1 l   1 (1000 l)
Hard coal (Q) 08.1
1.2 kg 1 t ≈ 800 l 1.2
Natural gas L 11.3 40 00.0093 0.00082 0.000.82 1 1 m³ ≈ 1 l 1000
Firewood (Q)
(hardwood / softwood)
3.5 dm 3
5 dm 3 (H)
1 Rm ≈ 200 l
1 Rm ≈ 150 l
Wood pellets (P1) 05 18th 03.25 1.12 0.650 3 l (loose) 1 t ≈ 500 l
15 kg ≈ 7.5 l (P2)
(J)Watt-hour outdated: 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) ≙ 3.6 mega joule (MJ)
(D)Usual delivery quantities: oil in liters (cubic decimeters); Gas in cubic meters ; Wood in cubic meters (Rm, balanced: cubic meter ÷ solid cubic meter ≈ 0.7; calorific value 2.0 MWh / Rm hardwood, 1.4 spruce); Coal in bulk meters (Sm, bulk: bulk density ≈ 0.9–1.1 t / m³ depending on crushing); Pellets: loose bulk
(Q) Average guide values ​​depending on quality
(H) That's about a third-meter log of hardwood, half-meter softwood
(P1) ÖNORM / DIN plus / SWISSPELLET, minimum requirement
(P2) Bagged goods

Petroleum Unit (International Stocking)

In the Petroleum Stocking Act , which obliges importers in Austria (similarly also in the EU) to store or to have stock for an estimated 90 days (25% of an annual turnover as of April 1st), 1 kg of crude oil is defined as 1 petroleum unit. Petroleum products in the most general sense, including biogenic fuels, bio-hydrogen and vegetable oils, are equated with 1.20 petroleum units per kg. Based on the international agreement on an energy program for 17 countries in Western Europe including Switzerland, Japan, Canada and the USA from 1974/76, this group of states undertakes to store petroleum products as a strategic oil reserve for 90 days of autonomous emergency supply. In the context of this International Energy Program which was International Energy Agency built.

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Jürgen Paeger: Energy and its units: tons of hard coal or petroleum equivalent. In: Ecosystem Earth. 2009, accessed December 23, 2009 .
  2. Petroleum Storage Act (2012). (PDF) elg.at legal sources; accessed February 15, 2014.