Distance-active protective measures
Active Protection System ( English active protection system , briefly APS ) refers to a a system tanks to protect or another vehicle from direct hits. Since they are the only ones able to guarantee all-round protection against modern anti-tank guided weapons or high-performance projectiles , these systems are becoming increasingly important. Comprehensive protection can only be guaranteed through distance-active protective measures, without very extensive armoring leading to unacceptably high vehicle weights.
The distance-active protective measures can in principle be divided into softkill and hardkill systems.
Softkill systems are defense systems that neutralize the threat without destroying it. Such systems can, for example, fire decoys to confuse target systems, point jammers at the attacker to disrupt the electronics of rockets and booby traps, use dazzling lasers to dazzle optical, ultraviolet and infrared viewfinders, or activate the smoke throwing system to fog the vehicle.
- Multifunctional Self-Protection System (MUST)
- Directed Infrared Counter Measures (DIRCM, formerly "FLASH")
Hard kill systems
Hard kill systems were developed in order to destroy the approaching projectile such as an anti-tank guided weapon , grenade or a bullet before it hit. These projectiles are initially located by sensors such as radar. If the computer decides that there is a threat, it initiates the fight against it within milliseconds . Depending on the mechanism of action, the target is destroyed either by shrapnel , a projectile-forming charge or a pressure wave. These systems form a danger zone for people in the vicinity of the fighting process.
- Afganit (Russia)
- AMAP -ADS (implemented as "Shark" with Thales in France or "AAC" with Akers in Sweden)
- Arena (Russia)
- AVePS (formerly "AWiSS")
- Drosd : The first distance-active protection system (Soviet Union, 1983)
- Iron Curtain (USA)
- Iron Fist (Israel)
- Quick Kill (USA)
- Trophy (Israel)
- Saslon (Ukraine)
Tanks of Soviet and Russian origin, such as the T-80 and T-90 , are already equipped with such a system. Western tanks such as the Leopard 2 or M1 Abrams can be retrofitted with such systems to increase the level of protection. The Puma infantry fighting vehicle and the K2 Black Panther were equipped with a softkill system from the start.
It is considered likely that distance-active protective measures will revolutionize tank construction. In future armored platforms such as the Swedish SEP and the MSMRAV planned by Nexter and KMW , hardkill systems will be an integral part of the protection concept. The passive armor should only ahead of mines, booby traps, machine guns , shrapnel from artillery shells and fired from hard kill system projectiles protect or projectile fragments.
- Shot-based system - TROPHY on Youtube (accessed on February 3, 2009)
- Grenade-based system - IRON FIST on Youtube (accessed on February 3, 2009)
- Overview of APS systems at defense-update (accessed on February 3, 2009)
- Tom J. Meyer: Active Protective Systems. Impregnable Armor or Simply Enhanced Survivability? (= ARMOR . May-June 1998). June 1998, p. 7–11 ( fas.org [PDF; 546 kB ; accessed on May 10, 2015]).
- EADS website with information on MUST ( Memento of February 11, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), in English, accessed on May 10, 2015.
- AVePS and DIRCM system from Diehl BGT Defense ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed February 3, 2009).
- IDB Deisenroth Engineering with data on the AMAP-APS ( Memento from December 11, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (English, accessed on February 3, 2009).
- IMI Web page for IRON-FIST system ( Memento of 5 October 2007 at the Internet Archive ), English, accessed on May 10, 2015.
- Quick kill on Defense Update ( Memento from January 22, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on July 9, 2019).
- Rafael website on the ASPRO-A (TROPHY) system (accessed on February 3, 2009).