Adeno-associated viruses

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Adeno-associated viruses
Adeno-associated viruses.jpg

Adeno-associated viruses

Classification : Viruses
Area : Monodnaviria
Empire : Shotokuvirae
Phylum : Cossaviricota
Class : Quintoviricetes
Order : Piccovirales
Family : Parvoviridae
Subfamily : Parvovirinae
Genre : Dependoparvovirus
Type : Adeno-associated virus A and B
Taxonomic characteristics
Genome : ssDNA
Baltimore : Group 2
Scientific name
Adeno-associated dependoparvovirus A, B
Short name

Adeno-associated viruses ( AAV ), officially adeno-associated dependoparvoviruses , belong to the dependoviruses , that is, they are dependent (Latin dependere) on a helper virus that attacks the same cell. The AAV are dependent on an adenovirus (hence "adeno" -associated viruses). The helper virus supplies proteins that are required by the AAV for replication in the cell. These proteins are the adenoviral proteins E1A, E2A, E4 and VA-RNA. The herpes simplex virus 1 or the human cytomegalovirus can also serve as a helper virus .

Without the presence of a helper virus, the human viral genetic material can integrate on chromosome 19 , but is usually present as an episome next to the human genome. As soon as adenoviruses are present, the cell goes into the lytic cycle, i.e. the particles multiply and the cell then bursts open so that AAV can continue to spread.

AAV are used as a viral vector in gene therapy because they are not associated with diseases and the viral genetic material is rarely integrated into the genome of the host cell in a non-specific manner . This reduces the oncogenic potential of these gene therapies. In addition, the particles are very stable and resting tissue (e.g. neurons) can be infected with them.

A serious disadvantage of AAV is its small genome , which is flanked by two ITRs ( inverted terminal repeats ). There is only 4.7kb between the ITRs. This means that only 4.7kb are available for a recombinant variant.

As of November 2018, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses differentiates between two species that were previously only listed as different serotypes : AAV-A and AAV-B.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e ICTV: ICTV Taxonomy history: Primate erythroparvovirus 1 , EC 51, Berlin, Germany, July 2019; Email ratification March 2020 (MSL # 35)
  2. H. Büning, L. Perabo et al. a .: Recent developments in adeno-associated virus vector technology. In: The journal of gene medicine. Volume 10, Number 7, July 2008, pp. 717-733. doi : 10.1002 / jgm.1205 . PMID 18452237 . (Review).
  3. ^ DR Deyle, DW Russell: Adeno-associated virus vector integration. In: Current opinion in molecular therapeutics. Volume 11, Number 4, August 2009, pp. 442-447, PMID 19649989 , PMC 2929125 (free full text) (review).