The lawyer is the contractual or legal representative in legal matters, in particular of private individuals , companies or institutions vis-à-vis the state , authorities , courts or companies. Another name for a lawyer is advocate .
Legal professions are already known in ancient Greece . In principle, the parties to the proceedings had to represent their case in court themselves. They could use an “advocate” or synegor ( ancient Greek συνήγορος synēgoros ) for support (voluntary work). Professional (paid) help was logographers provided that pleadings drafted. The legal professions were trained at rhetoric schools , among others .
This system was also partially adopted in the Roman Empire .
Originally, in the early modern period, the lawyer was a high official, in the sense of a deputy , in the 16th century also known as a caretaker . Since there was no separation between administration and justice at that time, he is both a public official and a person responsible for the administration of justice .
In the narrow sense
A lawyer in the narrower sense of the profession is today in German-speaking countries:
- Lawyer , at ordinary courts and criminal courts of the representatives of natural or legal persons
- Public prosecutor , in ordinary courts and criminal courts the representative of the legislature
- Patent attorney , the representative in industrial property protection
- In-house lawyer , as a representative in all legal matters of companies and associations
Similar activities (legal profession as the functional designation of the representation) practice / have partly carried out, or are only available in individual countries:
- District Attorney (Germany)
- Official notary
- Lawyer mediator
- Attorney General ( Common Law )
- Avoué ( France )
- Barrister ( United Kingdom )
- Attorney notary
- Bundeswehr disciplinary attorney
- Specialist lawyer or specialist lawyer (Switzerland)
- Fiscal Attorney (Germany [on behalf of and on behalf of authorities], Netherlands)
- Advocate General ( European Union )
- Attorney General at the Federal Court of Justice
- General Procurator (France)
- Military attorney
- Patient advocate
- Chief Federal Prosecutor (Germany), now representative of the federal interest at the Federal Administrative Court
- Oberreichsanwalt (German Empire)
- Legal Representative
- Legal agent ( Liechtenstein and Switzerland ), see also legal profession in Switzerland
- Swiss Federal Prosecutor
- Solicitor ( United Kingdom )
- In-house lawyer (Germany)
- Legal counsel
- Guardian ad litem
- Child and Youth Attorney (Austria)
- Gerhard Putschögl: Governor and State Attorney in Austria above the Enns in the 16th and 17th centuries . Extended version of a on September 6, 1967 on the 9th Austrian Historians' day in Linz in the Landes und Siedlungskunde section. In: Communications from the Upper Austrian Provincial Archives . tape 9 , 1968, Chapter II., P. 265–290 , here p. 275 ( online (PDF) in the forum OoeGeschichte.at).