The clubs (also spelled Clubbs ) are student associations of the first half of the 19th century in Göttingen and Heidelberg . Their roots go back to the country teams , later they were viewed as subsidiary forms of the corps . Their name points to English models, since a personal union between Great Britain and Hanover had existed since 1714 . It has not been proven beyond doubt that there were clubs in Hanover as early as the 18th century, which consisted mainly of nobles and civil servants .
Essence of clubs
The history of student associations in the 19th century is marked by frequent bans and persecution by the authorities. It is all the more astonishing that the clubs were classified as harmless by the university authorities of the Georg August University . For example, on January 14, 1813 , the prorector Professor Gustav von Hugo wrote to the royal Westphalian police chief, General von Bongars in Kassel, of “clubs that are not only tolerated, but our young people have always been allowed.” In fact, they protected purely sociable ones Purposes and they were presided over by a president when in reality they were a secret arms association.
Situation in Göttingen
In 1812 the last Landsmannschaften of Hesse and Pomerania had to dissolve and swear to the Vice Rector not to found any more Landsmannschaften - in the same year they reopened under the name "Corps". So there were initially only corps and clubs in Göttingen, from 1815 the old Göttingen fraternity was added, which, however, had a particularly difficult position due to the measures directed against them by university authorities and the overwhelming power of the corps and finally had to dissolve in 1834.
Subsidiary form of corps
The clubs recognized the corps comment . Often the connection form of the clubs was chosen if the connection still felt too weak or if the danger of discovery seemed too great to her. For these reasons, temporarily dissolved corps often continued to exist as clubs. In place of the Göttingen Seniors 'Convent of the Corps, the Representatives' Convent (RC) of the clubs took place. In the same sense, the terms “weapon connection”, “weapon company” or “pub” and occasionally “country team” were used. The Göttingen clubs had their heyday between 1820 and 1827, and there were over thirty clubs. By 1827, however, 27 of them had been converted into corps. After the Göttingen Revolution of 1831 and the Frankfurt Wachensturm of 1833, there were temporarily only three corps.
- Horst Bernhardi: The Göttingen Landsmannschaften from 1840–1854 . In: Historia academica of the Coburg Convent of the Academic Landsmannschaften and gymnastics associations at German universities . tape 2 . Coburger Convent, Stuttgart 1962, DNB 452036097 .
- Horst Bernhardi: The Göttinger Landsmannschaften from 1840-1854 . S. 13 .
- Compare: Heinrich Brüning, Georg Quaet-Faslem, Adolf Nicol: History of the Corps-Bremensia at the University of Georgia Augusta in Göttingen 1812–1912 with outlooks into the connecting life of the Göttingen student body from the foundation of the university (1737) . Huth, Göttingen 1914, DNB 579262782 .
- Heinrich Bünsow, Georg Heer: The old Göttinger Burschenschaft 1815–1834 (= sources and representations on the history of the fraternity and the German unity movement . No. 13 ). Winter, Heidelberg 1932, p. 209-339 .
- Alfred Wandsleb: Frisia Gottingensis . tape 1: 1811-1931 . Fraternity Frisia, Heide / Holstein 1931, DNB 576879967 .