Country teams and student orders at the University of Göttingen in the 18th century
Student associations arose at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen , although undesirable, in the course of its founding as a country team and also in the second half of the 18th century as a student order . Double memberships were possible and in the second half of the 18th century also aimed for, because, for example, the Order ZN had a higher social prestige among the reconnaissance societies in Göttingen.
With clear signals, the Secret Council of the Electorate of Hanover and the Vice Rectors of the young Göttingen University tried to keep it free from undesirable student associations and customs, as they were common at other German universities, immediately after it was founded. The proclamation was directed against Pennalism because of the Pennalisirens of the newly arrived “Studiosorum” of November 9th, 1739. The decree of June 8th, 1747 against wearing colors and the decree of November 6th, 1748 against the formation of country teams using the example of the Ilfeld country team As early as 1751, the next decree was issued by the prorector Georg Heinrich Ayrer on July 26th, 1751, with which the amalgamation of colored student associations was forbidden. The regulations issued since the founding of the university were only four years later as an extract and repetition of the laws that are prescribed for students in Göttingen. summarized and renewed by Vice Rector Johann Matthias Gesner on November 3, 1755. The undisciplined conditions in the student body made the Academic Laws for the studiosos at the Georg Augustus University in Göttingen again promulgated after the Seven Years' War . of August 18, 1763 required. In the middle of the 1760s, the university directed its persecution pressure primarily against the student orders, which it appeared to be more suspicious because more secretive . This led to the decline of the student order in Göttingen in 1766, which is also referred to in literature as the dying of the order, and indirectly promoted the development of the compatriots in Göttingen. From the family album Rupstein a representation of uniformed Country Mannschafter received with legend. This clearly demonstrates the existence of eight country teams at this point in time, the existence of which is also documented in the files of the University Court. For the year 1778, the convent protocols of the Hanoverian Landsmannschaft that have been preserved give a comparison "with the other three Landsmannschaft". In addition to the Hanoverians, there were three other compatriots - the Brunswick, Hamburg and Kurland teams. The same source shows that the Mecklenburg Landsmannschaft was the fifth to come back in November, i.e. it was renewed. The time of the protocols is followed by the Schubert silhouette collection , a collection of silhouettes by the member of the Hanoverian Landsmannschaft Carl Schubert, in which there are silhouettes of important personalities of all Göttingen Landsmannschaft from around 1775–1779.
In alphabetical order with first mentions and significant proof of existence.
Brunswick Country Team
A leading role of this country team is in 1768 the list of participants of the visit of Duke Ferdinand of Braunschweig on 3rd / 4th. July 1768. A mention can be found in the Göttingen Landsmannschaftsstreit 1772 and a representation of the uniform of the Brunswick can be found in the Rupstein register of 1772. In 1777, when the Kurlander Lerch moved out, the senior member of the Braunschweiger Landsmannschaft, Reitemeyer, was mentioned by name. The senior of the year 1778 BC Münchhausen is depicted and named by Carl Schubert in his silhouette collection.
The tradition of the Landsmannschaft is maintained today by the Corps Brunsviga Göttingen , founded in 1813 .
Accountant in the area of the Braunschweiger Landsmannschaft
|Accountant||running time||Storage location||Remarks||Illustration|
|Camping, HCS from||1773-1777||
Wolfenbüttel State Archives
Signature: VI Hs. 13, No. 72 a
|Member of the order ZN. Brunswick|
Evidence of the formation of this Landsmannschaft as a split from the Hanoverian Landsmannschaft has been found since the university jubilee in 1787. A Bremen Landsmannschaft had also formed there as a split from the Mecklenburgers last year at the anniversary of the University of Jena. In 1806 the people of Bremen moved to Hann. Münden involved. The tradition of the country team is maintained today by the Corps Bremensia Göttingen , founded in 1812 .
Curian country team
First mentioned in the Göttingen Landsmannschaftsstreit 1772 and first illustration of a uniformed Kurlander in 1772 in the Rupstein register. On October 29, 1777 the Kurlander Dr. med. Lerch an excerpt, in which other country teams also participate. In 1777 the senior v. Buddenbrock mentioned in the protocols of the Hanoverian Landsmannschaft. Other Kurlanders are shown in the Schubert silhouette collection with details of their batches. For the year 1780, Piter Poel from Hamburg reports on his meeting with Kurlanders who fled from Göttingen after a duel under their senior von Stackelberg in an inn near Kassel. In the 1790s the Kurlanders fully integrated into the student order of the Unitists until Tsar Paul recalled all of the country children studying outside of Russia in 1798. From 1802 a new Curonia opened up in Göttingen, as evidenced by an E. v. Budberg with Kurlander Circle. The Curon War of 1805 in Göttingen is recorded in a large number of studbooks, the Curons compete against the rest of the student body (opponents mainly Holstein, Mecklenburg and Hesse). When they moved to Hann-Münden in 1806, the Curonen were the only country team not to take part. The result is a resurgence of the Curonian War with 1400 duel demands; the quarrel consists mainly with the Westphalen. In 1808 the Balts organize themselves as Ruthenia together with the Pomeranians. The tradition of the Landsmannschaft and the resulting Corps Curonia is maintained today by the Corps Curonia Goettingensis , founded in 1959 .
Adolf von Ende , an example of an early breach of the cantonal principle
Accountant in the area of the Curland Landsmannschaft
|Accountant||running time||Storage location||Remarks||Illustration|
Patkul, Johann Jakob von
Württemberg State Library
Shelfmark: Cod. Don. 908
|Kurländer, member of the Order ZN.|
|Petersen, Carl Friedrich Ludwig
Herder Institute (Marburg)
Signature: DSHI 140 Balt. 589
|stud. theol. from Dorpat in Halle and Jena. A carrier on transit in Göttingen; numerous silhouettes. Later poet and university librarian in Dorpat.|
The Einbeckische Compagnie is another name for the students from the city of Einbeck who belong to the Bonsackische Freytisch in the university files of 1742, which suggests that they are classified as a country team.
The Frankfurter Landsmannschaft is figuratively evidenced by the illustration of a uniformed Frankfurt student in 1772 Rupstein Stammbuch and documented in writing for the period from 1769–1772 through the handwritten autobiography of the Hanoverian Landsmannschaft member Ernst Franz Carl von Hake , imm. April 14, 1769 to Easter 1772, during his studies in Göttingen.
The Hamburg Landsmannschaft is founded in 1766 by the stud. Piehl, member of the Hamburg Landsmannschaft, on record against Professor Johann David Michaelis at the University Court. In 1777, Wolters from Hamburg took part as adjudant general when Kurlander Lerch moved out. Images of the batches charged by Hamburgers can be found in the Schubert silhouette collection with the names of the batches, confirmed by the memoirs of Piter Poel from Hamburg , who in turn was a member of the Order ZN. This also includes the later Göttingen university professor Georg Friedrich von Martens .
The Hannoversche Landsmannschaft united the regional children on the Georgia-Augusta. She was therefore exposed to particular persecution pressure, while the sentence resulting from the persecution often took into account her family relationships in the electorate. It is therefore undoubtedly the best-documented Göttingen Landsmannschaft of the 18th century and has been in Göttingen since March 1, 1735. Members of the Landsmannschaft founded the Corps Hannovera Göttingen in 1809 .
Holstein country team
In response to the insult "pereant the infamous dumplings, the Hollsteiners, the infamous Poltrons", the Holsteiner Landsmannschaft filed a complaint against the offender in November 1751 before the university court, which in its decision sentenced the perpetrator in addition to a 14-day prison sentence, with a delegation from to excuse four Holsteiners. In this context, it is remarkable that the country teams (as well as the student orders) were at least temporarily actively legitimized for such "collective actions ". In 1772 there is a picture of a uniformed Hollsteiner in the Rupstein register. In the period that followed, the Holsteiners often joined the Mecklenburgers. In 1802, Holsatia Wichard Wilhelm von Heyden was named as a member of a re-existing country team . The Holsteiners moved to Hann. Münden involved and in 1808 again merged with the Mecklenburgers in their Vandalia.
Ilfeld country team
The union of alumni of the Ilfeld Abbey School was forbidden by the university in 1748.
Jever country team
Compatriot union of students from the city of Jever ; Mentioned in the university records in 1748.
Lüneburg country team
1799–1802 the stud. Georg Ludwig von Wedemeyer named as a member of the Lüneburg Landsmannschaft.
The first mention of a Mecklenburg Landsmannschaft is a commission to the poet Heinrich Christian Boie , who as court master of the Mecklenburg FCA von der Lühe came to study with him in Göttingen, to write a birthday poem for the Duchess of Mecklenburg in 1770. In May 1772, the Mecklenburg Landsmannschaft was on record in the university court files as the main party in the Landsmannschafts dispute. According to the protocols of the Hanoverian Landsmannschaft, it was "reopened" in November 1778, so it then existed again as the 5th after four Landsmannschafts previously. The silhouettes of some members of the Mecklenburg Landsmannschaft around 1779 can be found in the Schubert silhouette collection. In 1806 the Mecklenburgers moved out to Hann. Münden involved. On December 26, 1808, they were constituted as Vandalia (including the Holsteiners).
Nicolaus Otto von Wickede , member (1779)
Accountant in the area of the Mecklenburg Landsmannschaft
|Accountant||running time||Storage location||Remarks||Illustration|
|Barner, Levin Joachim von||1764-1765||City Archives Göttingen
Signature: Stabu No. 85
|Barner, Levin Joachim von||1765-1766||Stadtarchiv Göttingen
Signature: Stabu No. 45
|Fabricius, Adam||City Archives Göttingen
|From Wismar. Entry JGF Schröder: "MSM" connected to the 4-dot line symbol of the Amicists (= Membrum Societatis Mecklenburgicae?)|
|Eggers, Ad. Th.||
Signature: Cod. Ms hist. Litt. 48 n
|stud. med. from Mecklenburg; Entries "MM" on September 6, 1775 and March 31, 1776|
|Plessen, Otto Dietrich Hartwig Leopold von||1802-1816||Stadtarchiv Göttingen
Signature: Stabu No. 237
|Mecklenburg (stud. Jur. From Rostock)|
|1804-1818||State main archive Schwerin (loss), excerpt in the Institute for University Studies , Würzburg||Son of the Goettingen Vice Rector Eichhorn. Member of the Vandals.|
Mosellaner country team
The Mosellaner Landsmannschaft in Jena relied on Alsatian and Baden members and founded the Amicist order there in 1771 . The connection between the Landsmannschaft and the order was so close that Mosellans and Amicists were used synonymously in parlance. This double connection is also verifiable in Göttingen by the illustration of a uniformed Moselan in 1772 in the Rupstein register. The Mosellans were seen as rough in appearance. So it is no wonder that they are also recorded in the Göttingen university court files in 1774. In 1778 they are no longer mentioned as a Landsmannschaft in the protocols of the Hanoverian Landsmannschaft.
Pomeranian country team
The Pomeranian Landsmannschaft as an association of students from Swedish Pomerania sued in 1749 by their senior because of insult by the Turk brothers. In 1750, a Graf Schulenburg in Göttingen was repeatedly conspicuous against the Pomeranians in an unpleasant and insulting manner and the university reported to the Privy Council in Hanover regarding the status of the insulting party and asked for measures from there. A picture of a uniformed Pomeranian can be found in 1772 Rupstein's register. In 1780 the university allowed the Pomeranians to catch up with their King Gustav III. from Sweden to visit Göttingen. The Pomeranians are also in 1806 when moving to Hann. Münden involved.
A country team of the Rhinelander is in 1806 when moving to Hann. Münden detectable for the first time. It is led by Georg Kloß in 1808 and merged into the Corps Hannovera in 1809.
The tradition of the country team is maintained today by the Corps Hannovera Göttingen .
Helvetic country team
The Helveter, as a national union of Swiss students in Göttingen, moved to Hann. Münden involved.
Westphalian country team
First mention of a uniformed Westphalian in 1772 in the Rupstein register, there also three name entries "Pro salute Guestphalorum" not mentioned in the protocols of the Hanoverian Landsmannschaft and in the Schubert silhouette collection among the existing Landsmannschaft listed there. From the year 1787, after the university jubilee, there is a Westphälischer Burschenkommers: Laws of the Westphalian Landsmannschaft passed on November 4th . Otto Deneke points to entries "Libertas et concordia" combined with the symbol "VW" (vivat Westphalia) for the following period. In 1801 the Guestphalia was reformation by the Westphalian cartel . The Westphälische Landsmannschaft is in 1802 because of the student riots and the failure of the student body to move out, and in 1806 they moved to Hann. Münden involved. Reconstitution takes place in 1807. In 1808 an official investigation is directed against the country teams by Johannes von Müller, with a focus on the Westphalians. In 1812 renewed reconstitution and in 1848 the Corps Guestphalia Göttingen was finally extinguished. The tradition of the Landsmannschaft and the Corps Guestphalia Göttingen that resulted from it is maintained today by the Corps Hildeso-Guestphalia Göttingen , founded in 1854 .
Student order in Göttingen
Student orders in Göttingen, arranged according to the historical phases of their creation and development:
- Order of the Pug (1747–48) possibly originated as a result of the ban on the Landsmannschaften of June 8, 1747 and banned in 1748 by the university authorities.
- Order of Josephites
- Swordtail Society
- L'Honneur et l'Amitie, also known as the Eddinghauser Society
- Virtus and Honor
- Order of the Pilgrim or Order of the Chain
- Ordre de l'Esperance
- Four times C-medals
A true wave of founding new student orders hit Göttingen after the Seven Years' War. Prorector Johann Stephan Pütter therefore initiated a comprehensive investigation in 1763, which led to the ban on all existing orders in 1766, only the CeT order survived in illegality.
- Amicitia et Concordia, dissolved by the ban of 1766
- Concordia et Sinceritas, dissolved by the ban of 1766
- Sincerity and honesty dissolved by the 1766 ban
- Concordia et Taciturnitas (CeT), also Gustavsloge of the worthy inseparable Concordia order, existed from 1762 to 1778.
- Pro Patriae et Fraternitatis Amore, dissolved by the 1766 ban
- Fraternitas et Sinceritas, dissolved by the 1766 ban
- Virtus et amicitia, dissolved by the 1766 ban
- Innocence, dissolved by the 1766 ban
- Orden de la vérité, dissolved by the ban of 1766
In addition to the existing CeT order, a new one emerged from the Göttingen Espérancierloge Mars:
- In 1772 the Order ZN , last under the seniorate of Professor Blumenbach until it was banned in 1784. According to student historians, ZN was the most influential Göttingen student order of the second half of the 18th century. When it was banned, the Order had considerable financial assets, which it had collected for the purpose of setting up a chemical laboratory, which could no longer be realized as a result of the ban. Under Ernst Brandes , these funds were earmarked for a memorial for Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , while further funds were raised from the circle of members . From the liquidation assets of the order, the Irish sculptor Christopher Hewetson created the Leibniz bust for the Leibniz temple in Hanover until 1789 , thereby creating a permanent memorial to the ZN order and its enlightenment objectives.
The great student orders of the late 18th century:
- Amicist Order , donated in Jena in 1771 by Alsatian and Baden members of the Mosellaner Landsmannschaft and therefore also called the Mosellaner Order . It was of no importance in Göttingen.
- Constantisten , originated in Halle around 1777, in VC for Vivat Constantia. Newly founded in Göttingen in 1790.
- Unitists , originated in Halle in 1774 and founded from there in Göttingen in 1787.
- Harmonists - emerged from the Black Brothers. Mother Lodge Jena, represented in Göttingen from 1787. Dissolution of the Landwehr in September 1795 , insignificant resurgence from 1798 to 1804, the final end of the religious period in Göttingen.
The counter duel set Schokoladisten solved from 1792 unrest in Jena , which throughout the Roman Empire Saints to investigation and prosecution, leading eventually to the prohibition of all students Order. The medals in Göttingen were therefore also banned by the government in Hanover in October 1794 and subsequently severely persecuted by the university authorities.
- Johann Stephan Pütter , Friedrich Saalfeld, Georg Heinrich Oesterley: Johann Stephan Pütter's attempt at an academic scholarly history from the Georg Augustus University in Göttingen . Vandenhoek, Göttingen 1765 Online
- Friedrich Christian Laukhard : The Mosellaner or Amicist order depicted after its creation, internal constitution and distribution on the German universities , Halle 1799
- Ernst Brandes : About the current state of the University of Göttingen . Goettingen 1802
- Emil Franz Rössler : The founding of the University of Göttingen . Göttingen 1855. Digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D2GhAAAAAIAAJ~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~ double sided%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D
- Brüning , Quaet-Faslem, Nicol: History of the Corps Bremensia 1812–1912 , Göttingen 1914
- Götz von Selle : An academic order in Göttingen around 1770 , in: Göttingische Neben Stunden 4, 1927
- Otto Deneke : Old Göttingen Landsmannschaften, Göttingen 1937
- Otto Deneke: Göttingen Student Order, Göttingen 1938
- Rudolf Körner : On the nature of the student orders . Once and Now 6 (1961), pp. 141-149
- Franz Stadtmüller (Hrsg.): History of the Corps Hannovera zu Göttingen 1809-1959. Goettingen 1963.
- Erich Bauer , FA Pietzsch: On the Göttingen Unitist Order , in: Once and Now. 1968 yearbook of the Society for Corps Student History Research, pp. 55–67
- Walter Richter: The Esperance and ZN Order , in: Once and Now. 1974 yearbook of the Association for Corporate Student History Research, pp. 30–54
- Jürgen von Stackelberg (Ed.): On the intellectual situation at the time when the University of Göttingen was founded in 1737. A series of lectures on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of Georgia Augusta. Göttingen University Writings Series A, Volume 12, Göttingen 1988
- Dietrich Denecke , Helga-Maria Kühn (ed.): Göttingen. History of a university town . 3 volumes (1987: Volume 1, 2002: Volume 2, 1999: Volume 3) Göttingen 1987–2002, ISBN 3-525-36196-3 .
- Stefan Brüdermann : Göttingen students and academic jurisdiction in the 18th century , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1990 ( digitized version )
- Peter Kaupp : Freemasonry and Boy Customs. Continuity of religious traditions in corporate students. Einst und Jetzt , Vol. 46 (2001), pp. 33-68.
- Gunnar Henry Caddick: The Hannöversche Landsmannschaft at the University of Göttingen from 1737-1809. Göttingen 2002.
- Heinrich F. Curschmann: Blue Book of the Corps Hannovera zu Göttingen, Volume 1: 1809–1899 Göttingen 2002
- HD hand rack: 200 years of Curonia in Göttingen 1804–2004 . Göttingen 2004.
- Götz von Selle (ed.): The register of the Georg-August-Universität zu Göttingen - 1734-1837 . Leipzig 1937, Kraus Reprint, 1980, ISBN 978-3-262-00030-8
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 10 ff.
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 12
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 14
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 15
- ↑ digitized version
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 16
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 17
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 34 below
- ↑ Manuscript Department of the SUB Goettingen
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 27
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 54
- ↑ view
- ↑ a b Brüdermann (1990), p. 217
- ↑ Manuscript in the estate archive of the von Hake family in Ohr, there pp. 161–193. Copies in the archive of the Corps Hannovera Göttingen.
- ^ Brüdermann (1990), pp. 166/167
- ↑ Poltron = hare's foot
- ↑ a b Brüdermann (1990), p. 223
- ↑ Constantly changing. Reports from six generations of the von Heyden / von Heyden-Linden family from 1800–1989. Introduced, connected and interviewed by Harald von Heyden . Heyden'sche Familienstiftung (ed.), Borgwedel, pp. 140–144 (pp. 140ff.) Not included in the Kösener Corps lists from 1910
- ^ Karl Weinhold: Heinrich Christian Boie , Halle 1868, p. 36.
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 36; Founder and Senior LH v. Mecklenburg, Subsenior Suderow, p. 47.
- ^ Walter Richter: The Mecklenburg Landsmannschaft in the 18th century. In: then and now. Volume 20 (1975), pp. 1–32 (Darin "Göttingen", pp. 28–31)
- ^ Brüdermann (1990), p. 246
- ^ Brüdermann (1990), p. 493.
- ^ Brüdermann (1990), p. 232
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 19
- ^ Würzburg Archive for Student and University History, December 1933
- ↑ Deneke (1937), p. 50 ff.
- ↑ Otto Deneke: Die Westphälische Landsmannschaft 1787-1812. Göttingen 1935
- ↑ Kösener Corpslisten 1910, 69
- ^ Franz Stadtmüller: History of the Corps Hildeso-Guestphalia zu Göttingen , Göttingen 1954
- ^ Freemason newspaper: Handschrift für Brüder, Volume 4, 1850, p. 181
- ↑ a b c Brüdermann (1990), p. 235
- ^ Brüdermann (1990), p. 234
- ^ Brüdermann (1990), p. 236 ff.