David II (Scotland)

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David II at the Battle of Neville's Cross (contemporary illustration)
The treaty of alliance between David II and the Dauphin Charles, future King Charles V of France , June 1359. Paris, Archives nationales, J 677, no. 8

David II (born March 5, 1324 in Dunfermline , Fife , † February 22, 1371 in Edinburgh Castle ) was King of Scotland from 1329 until his death . He was the son of Robert I ( Robert the Bruce ) and his second wife Elizabeth de Burgh .


In accordance with the Agreement of Edinburgh and Northampton , he was married on July 17, 1328 to Princess Joan of England († 1362), daughter of the English King Edward II and Isabellas of France . After his father's death on June 7, 1329, he became King of Scotland and was coronated in Scone in November 1331.

Due to the victory of Edward III. and his favorite Edward Balliol at the Battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333, David and his Queen were brought to safety in France . In May 1334 they arrived in Boulogne-sur-Mer , where they were given by the French King Philip VI. were received extremely friendly. Little is known of the life of the Scottish king in France, except that he received the Château-Gaillard as his residence and was present at the bloodless clash of the English and French armies at Vironfosse in October 1339.

In the meantime his representatives in Scotland had gained the upper hand. David returned to Scotland in June 1341, where he took the rule into his own hands. Under the terms of the Auld Alliance , his army invaded England in 1346 to relieve France. But he was defeated and captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross on October 17th. He remained for eleven years in England and lived mainly in London and in Odiham in the county of Hampshire . His detention was not too rigorous and negotiations for his release began shortly afterwards. But it was not until October 1357, after numerous interruptions, that an agreement was sealed in Berwick . The Scots pledged to pay a ransom for their king.

David, who was probably Edward III. when recognized his liege , returned to Scotland immediately, but due to the poverty of the country it was not possible to pay the ransom. Some installments were paid off, but David strove to settle the debt by giving Edward III. or appointed one of his sons heir to the Scottish throne. In 1364 the Scottish Parliament indignantly rejected the proposal to replace Lionel of Antwerp , the Duke of Clarence , as his successor. But David led with Edward III. secret negotiations on the matter after suppressing a revolt of some nobles.

The king died in 1371 at the age of 47 and childless in Edinburgh Castle . His second wife was Margaret Drummond . Shortly before his death he had intended to marry his mistress Agnes Dunbar . His nephew Robert II succeeded him to the throne.

See also

Web links

Commons : David II (Scotland)  - collection of images, videos and audio files
predecessor Office successor
Robert I. King of Scotland
Robert II