The (semiconductor technology)
A The ([ daɪ ], English for "dice", "flakes", dt i plural A. "This"; English plural.:. Dice or the [ daɪs ] and the [ daɪ ]) is in the semiconductor and micro-systems technology the name of an individual, unpackaged piece of semiconductor - wafer . Such a die is usually obtained by sawing or breaking the finished wafer into rectangular parts ( dicing ). Usually there is a component on a die, e.g. B. a transistor, light emitting diode, or a complex assembly, e.g. B. Integrated circuit , a microsystem . In order to benefit from parallel production on the wafer for as long as possible, the dicing takes place last in the normal production process, directly before installation in a housing or attachment to a circuit carrier (see direct assembly ). These are then called " chips " or " naked chips ". Even if a wafer (planned) is divided (even unstructured) before the component or assembly is completed, the sections are referred to as dies.
The term “ die ” comes from kitchen English: “ slice and dice ” means - for example a cucumber - “first cut into slices and then dice”. Accordingly, one begins with the production of integrated circuits with a - cucumber-like - silicon bar , this is then "cut into slices" - from this the " wafer " = "waffles" - and then "chopped up" - from this then the " dice " = "Cube". Since the wafers are very thin, the “ dice ” do not look cube-shaped, but rather correspond to very flat cuboids in their shape.
" Bare chip " or " bare die " (German "Nacktchip") are integrated electronic components that are not conventionally built into a plastic or ceramic housing, but are processed without a housing. They are applied directly to a circuit board or a ceramic substrate and electrically connected to surrounding components by means of wire bonding .
As integration progresses, more and more assemblies that were previously attached as individual chips next to each other on a circuit board are combined on a common chip. Meanwhile, several hundred million transistors for CPUs , GPUs or RAM are housed on a die with an area of around one square centimeter .
|product||The dimensions||Die area (mm²)||Technology node||Number of transistors (million)||Comment / component|
|Intel 4004||3 mm × 4 mm||12||10 µm PMOS||0.0023||Main processor, first microprocessor|
|Intel Itanium 2 (Tukwila)||21.5 mm × 32.5 mm||698.75||65 nm bulk CMOS||221||Multi-core main processor|
|AMD Phenom II X6||346||45 nm||750||Multi-core main processor|
|Nvidia Fermi GF110||520||40 nm||3000||Graphics processor|
|AMD Cayman (RV970)||389||40 nm||2640||Graphics processor|
|Intel Core i7-980X||248||32 nm||1170||Multi-core main processor|
|AMD FX||315||32 nm||1200||Multi-core main processor|
|Nvidia Kepler GK110 B||533||28 nm||7100||Graphics processor|
|AMD Tahiti (R1000)||365||28 nm||4310||Graphics processor|
|Nvidia Pascal GP100||610||16 nm FinFET||15300||Graphics processor|
|NVIDIA Volta GV100 chip||815||12 nm FinFET||21100||Graphics processor|
Digital and analog signal circuits can increasingly be accommodated on a chip with power electronic elements (e.g. BiCMOS technology).
A combination of two complementary assemblies, such as CPU and cache , on the same chip can be described with the term “ on- die ”: The CPU has the cache “ on- die ”, which enables higher clock rates and bus widths and thus the exchange of data significantly accelerated.
The assembly and connection technology (AVT, packaging ) deals with the further processing of the dies - housing and integration into the circuitry environment .
A known good die (KGD) is a semiconductor chip that has been tested according to the specifications and found to be good, which, depending on the product , can contain a single component, for example a transistor , or a complex circuit such as a microprocessor . Good or defective data can also be determined in the wafer assembly using electrical needle testers. Defective components used to be identified by a colored dot ( inked ) and are excluded from the subsequent process of contacting and housing (cycle II, packaging ).
The ratio of useful to the total number of all available on a wafer as this will yield (engl. Yield ) and is an important indicator for evaluating the manufacturing process and the efficiency of a production line.
- Graham Neil: Time is right for bare die. In: European Semiconductor , 27, No. 11, 2005, pp. 11-12.
- According to Google: "semiconductor dice" - 6 hits; "Semiconductor Thies" - 339 hits; Status: 03/2018
- Yvonne Attiyate, Raymond Shah: Dictionary of microelectronics and microcomputer technology with explanations / Dictionary of Microelectronics and Micro Computer Technology with definition. Springer, 2013, ISBN 978-3-662-13444-3 , p. 42 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Guy De la Bédoyère: The First Computers. Evans Brothers, 2005, ISBN 0-237-52741-3 , p. 36 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Lambert Saddle Elicke, Eric DeLano: Intel Itanium quad-core Architecture for the Enterprise. (PDF) 2010, p. 5 , accessed on July 12, 2015 (presentation slides, Eighth Workshop on Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing Architectures and Compiler Technology (EPIC-8)).
- nVidia GK104: 3.54 billion transistors on a chip area of just 294mm². 3DCenter.org, March 13, 2012, accessed June 21, 2014 .
- heise online: GTC 2016: Nvidia unveils Pascal monster chip with 16 GByte HBM2 and up to 3840 cores. In: heise online. Retrieved August 23, 2016 .
- heise online: GTC 2017: Nvidia introduces giant GPU Volta with 5120 cores and 16 GByte HBM2. In: heise online. Retrieved October 15, 2018 .