Doberman Pinscher

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Doberman Pinscher
Doberman Pinscher
FCI Standard No. 143
1.1 Pinscher
Origin :


Withers height:

Males: 68–72 cm.
Bitches: 63–68 cm


Males: 40–45 kg.
Bitches: 32–35 kg

Varieties :
  • black with rust-red burn
  • brown with rusty red burn
List of domestic dogs

The Dobermann is a German dog breed recognized by the FCI ( FCI Group 2, Section 1.1, Standard No. 143 ).

Origin and history

The Doberman was named by its first known breeder, the from Apolda originating Friedrich Louis Dobermann (1834-1894). For breeding, he mated some particularly fearless, courageous dogs , including his favorite bitch , the mouse-gray "Schnuppe", which was neither a sheepdog nor a pinscher and therefore nothing more than a crossbreed product from the dog population around Apolda at that time. He mated this bitch with a butcher dog, a kind of forerunner of the Rottweiler , mixed with a kind of shepherd dog, which was found in Thuringia predominantly in black with rust-red markings, furthermore bastards from pinscher and hunting dog breeds are said to have been used as well as a greyhound to to give the dog a slimmer line. So one was utility , labor and guard dog breed that will not only alert, but also "man firm yard and house dogs were." They were used early on as police dogs, which led to the nickname "gendarme dogs " at the time. When hunting, they were mainly used to combat predatory game . In the two world wars, the Doberman was also used, especially in the German army , as a reporting dog , minesweeper and medical dog . In addition, Dobermans were preferred service dogs in concentration camps alongside shepherds and Airedale terriers . In November 2015 the FCI approved a new breed standard which (in implementation of an FCI specification from 2010) no longer includes cropping ears and tail - ears and tail remain natural - and describes black and brown Dobermans as a separate variety . The standard is valid from August 1, 2016. Ear cropping has been banned since 1986 and the tail has been banned in dogs born in Germany since the late 1990s.


Brown blow
Doberman pinscher docked on tail and ears . These interventions are now banned in most European countries.

The Dobermann is an elegant 63 to 72 cm tall and up to 45 kg heavy dog ​​of the Pinscher type, smooth-haired, the glossy coat is black with red-brown markings and dark brown with red-brown markings. Other colors that are excluded from breeding in Germany: isabel, blue and white. The ears are typically medium-sized, rounded and drooping. The tail and ears were often docked in the past (now banned in most European countries). The Doberman breed strives for a medium-sized, strong and muscularly built dog, which, despite all substance, shows elegance and nobility in the lines of the body.


The Doberman is one of the working dog breeds . Thanks to his intelligence and temperament, he is suitable for many dog sports , such as B. Agility , Obedience , VPG-Sport, or as a tracking dog . However, it is also used as a service dog by the police, customs and the armed forces and as a rescue dog . The Doberman is also suitable as a therapy dog ​​and guide dog for the blind.


“The basic mood of the Doberman is friendly and peaceful, very affectionate in the family. A medium temperament and medium sharpness are required. Furthermore, a medium stimulus threshold is required. If the Doberman is good at handling and willing to work, attention must be paid to performance, courage and hardness. With appropriate attention to the environment, self-confidence and fearlessness are particularly important. "

- FCI breed standard Doberman

Racial Issues

The Doberman is one of the list dogs in Brandenburg . As long as the dog owner has not obtained a corresponding negative certificate in each individual case, a dangerous dog is assumed.

The official Dobermann breed book (DZB) is kept by the Dobermann-Verein eV.

In Switzerland , the Dobermann is listed in nine of the thirteen cantons with rascal lists ; in these cantons, the keeping of the Dobermann is subject to approval. In the canton of Valais keeping, breeding and importation shall be prohibited.

Diseases typical of the breed

Very widespread in the Dobermann is the dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), also referred to as Doberman cardiomyopathy, a very aggressive form of heart disease, which may come to sudden cardiac death. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in the Doberman and is equally common in males and females. The cumulative prevalence across all age groups is 58.2%.

In addition, the occurs Congenital vestibular disease , a hereditary disease of the inner ear with balance disorders and numbness on frequently. The dog breed is also predisposed to wobbler syndrome . The hip dysplasia is also to be found. The von Willebrand's disease (a bleeding disorder ) also occurs. The Dobermann Verein (DV) has been conducting extensive genetic tests for Von Willebrand's disease in its breeding animals and puppies since January 1, 2016, in order to push this disease back from the breed. Dancing Doberman Disease is a rare neurological disease .

Web links

Commons : Doberman Pinscher  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Doberman Pinscher  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Regarding the health of the breed:

Individual evidence

  1. FCI: Dobermann (143): modified standard from 01/08/2016 . 17th December 2015.
  2. FCI model standard . There it says: “'Formulations that require surgical intervention are rejected in all FCI standards.' (FCI board, Dortmund 2010) "
  3. ↑ Breed standard No. 143 of the FCI: Dobermann, valid from August 1, 2016 ( PDF document)
  4. § 6 Paragraph 1 TierSchG
  5. Regulatory Authority Ordinance on Keeping and Leading Dogs (Hundehalterverordnung - HundehV) of June 16, 2004
  6. ^ Dobermann Association eV
  7. ^ G. Wess, A. Schulze, V. Butz, J. Simak, M. Killich: Prevalence of Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers in Various Age Groups . In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine . tape 24 , no. 3 , 2010, p. 533-538 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1939-1676.2010.0479.x ( PDF ).
  8. Doberman Club Breeding Regulations (DV). Retrieved January 1, 2016 .