Holistic approach (pedagogy)
In pedagogy, holism refers to an integrative component of action-oriented concepts. Initial approaches can already be seen with Pestalozzi's idea of elementary education , learning with head, heart and hand within the framework of the visual pedagogy of the time . Based on reform pedagogy , holistic learning emphasizes not only the traditionally privileged cognitive-intellectual aspects but also physical as well as affective-emotional aspects: holistic learning is learning with all the senses, learning with mind, spirit and body.
A holistic approach to learning represents - without being allowed to be absolutized - a necessary addition to action orientation , learner orientation and process orientation . It can be characterized by alternating effort and relaxation as well as satisfactory linguistic and non-linguistic interactions with a high level of error tolerance on the part of the teacher. It is less oriented towards learning progression, learning rules and gaining insights, but rather focuses on the individual learning process and proceeds more imitative and practical. This is why this form of learning is important both in the prepubescent period and in groups with learning difficulties.
In curative and special education , holism as a technical term has a special position and function. Here it refers to both anthropological and methodological aspects as well as legal aspects. This multifaceted use is increasingly being discussed critically.
A holistic approach encompasses the individual dimension ( knowledge of the world , expectations, preferences, skills), the group dimension (group goals, group constellations), the thematic dimension and the environment (institutional framework, social requirements, material aspects such as classroom equipment )
As a consequence of the lateralization of the brain , holistic learning should address both the left-hemispheric (analytical-logical) and the right-hemispheric functions that are responsible for sensual perception, intuitive perception and holistic mental activities.
The demand for holism wants to bring the entire personality of the learner into the learning process and create complex teaching structures. As a programmatic guiding principle and meaningful, it fails in view of the learning psychological realities of the learners and in the practical-methodical implementation:
Due to the (very different) range of skills of the learner and the organization of the lesson, it is neither possible nor necessary in terms of the learning objectives to always include the entire person in the learning process. It is sufficient to keep an eye on the principle of holism in the overall concept of teaching and to take into account the individual, very different abilities of the learners. It is important to align the learning potentials available to the individual to the structure of the more or less complex learning objective and to activate them for the optimization of the respective learning processes.
In the 1970s, therefore, of the didactics Siegbert A. Warwitz with the principle and the method of multidimensional learning a teaching and learning in the classroom teaching introduced, which is closer to the reality of life and teaching realities. The largely one-sided practical or theoretical, physically or intellectually designed subject lessons had led to a less efficient teaching situation that was unsatisfactory in terms of learning success and motivation.
While the term “holistic” focuses more on the personality of the learner, “multi-dimensional learning” simultaneously focuses on the structure and requirements of the subject matter as well as the individual and real school conditions. This leads to a more differentiated and personal design of the learning processes.
- Total Physical Response
- Learning by teaching
- Multi-dimensional learning
- Project teaching
- Project-oriented teaching
- role playing game
- Free work
- Station learning
- Günter Ammon : The multidimensional person . Berlin (Pinelverlag) 1995. 2nd edition. ISBN 3-922-109-10-1
- Siegbert Warwitz : The need to supplement physical education . In: Ders .: Interdisciplinary sports education. Didactic perspectives and model examples of interdisciplinary teaching. Schorndorf (Verlag Hofmann) 1974. Pages 40-52 .
- Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: The principle of multi-dimensional teaching and learning . In: Dies .: Project teaching. Didactic principles and models . Schorndorf 1977 (Verlag Hofmann) pages 15-22. ISBN 3-7780-9161-1 .
- Corinna Weber: Interdependencies between emotion, motivation and cognition in self-regulated learning processes: Ability for lifelong learning through multi-dimensional teaching-learning concepts . Hamburg (Diplomica) 2012. ISBN 978-3-8428-7317-9
- Foreign language teaching
- Holistic approach (foreign language teaching)
- Action orientation (foreign language teaching)
- Gestalt pedagogy
- Civic Education
- Organization of care for people with disabilities
- Frederike Klippel: Considerations on holistic foreign language teaching. In: Foreign language teaching. Issue 4/2000, p. 242.
- Renate Löffler: Holistic learning: Basics and forms of work. In: Gerhard Bach, Johannes-Peter Timm (ed.): English lessons. Basics and methods , Tübingen – Basel 1996, pp. 42–68.
- Andreas Nieweler (Ed.): French Didactics - Tradition | Innovation | Practice. Klett, Stuttgart 2006, p. 49.
- Günter Wild: The concept of holism in curative education. Dissertation, Hagen 2007.
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: The skills of the child . In: Ders .: Traffic education from the child. Perceive-play-think-act . Publisher Schneider. Baltmannsweiler. 6th edition 2009. Pages 37-49
- Günter Ammon: The multidimensional man . Berlin (Pinelverlag) 1995
- Siegbert Warwitz: The need to supplement physical education . In: Ders .: Interdisciplinary sports education. Didactic perspectives and model examples of interdisciplinary teaching. Hofmann publishing house. Schorndorf 1974. Pages 40-52
- Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: The principle of multi-dimensional teaching and learning . In: Dies .: Project teaching. Didactic principles and models . Hofmann publishing house. Schorndorf 1977, pages 15-22
- Corinna Weber: Interdependencies between emotion, motivation and cognition in self-regulated learning processes: Capability for lifelong learning through multi-dimensional teaching and learning concepts . Hamburg (Diplomica) 2012