Johann Christoph Friedrich Baumgarten

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Johann Christoph Friedrich Baumgarten , also JCF Baumgarten (born September 8, 1773 in Magdeburg , † July 16, 1847 ibid) was a German educator and textbook author .


After graduating from Magdeburg Domgymnasium , Baumgarten studied at the country school teachers' seminar in the nearby Berge monastery , where he was qualified to teach under Friedrich Gabriel Resewitz (1728–1806) and Christian Friedrich Schewe (1751–1812). From 1797 to 1803 he worked as a teacher and rector in Dodendorf before he switched to the former commercial school in Magdeburg as a senior teacher . After its conversion to a secondary school for girls in the course of the school reforms by Karl Christoph Gottlieb ZerrennerIn 1819 he was the rector of the Lyceum from 1823 until his retirement in 1846; until 1835 he was also active as a teacher at the royal school teachers' college. At least in the 1810s and 1820s, Baumgarten lived at the address Breiter Weg 109 .

Pedagogical work

During his time as rector in Dodendorf, Baumgarten wrote his first practical treatises on teaching methodology, especially at rural and elementary schools, which received professional and official recognition. Numerous other multi-volume educational publications and textbooks were added later, which were distributed far beyond the region and significantly influenced the learning methods in rural schools. Baumgarten also played an outstanding role in the development of the girls' school system in his homeland.

Development of the orthographic reference sheets and exercise pieces

Sheet 1: First rule of spelling
Sheet 206: First genitive rule

Up until the publication of official spelling rules from 1879 onwards, every teacher or teaching staff at a school had to determine the rules according to which the pupils were to be instructed in "correct" writing. Since this was perceived as awkward as early as the 18th century and works such as Adelung's Complete Instructions on German Orthography were not suitable as a textbook due to their size, individual teachers repeatedly tried to find writing gauges, concise regulations or other aids to facilitate and standardize spelling lessons to accomplish.

Baumgarten's Orthographische Vorlegeblätter and exercise pieces , which he brought out for the first time in 1807 and which found national distribution in numerous extended new editions, were such a work . The backs of all the sheets of the book were empty and could be torn out for the lesson, glued to cardboard and presented to the students, where the title template sheets came from . Two folio sheets were added to the work , on which all the basic rules for spelling, punctuation and grammar are summarized; these sheets should also be glued to cardboard and then hung up in the classroom so that they can be consulted at any time. Baumgarten's template sheets were reprinted a total of nine times after 1807; the last revision appeared a few weeks before his death in 1847.


  • The art of catechism. A manual for beginners and inexperienced in the same, along with some catechizations. 2 volumes, Aue-Verlag, Köthen 1803/1805; 2nd improved edition ibid. 1822/1826.
  • Song collection for country schools. With a singing voice to improve and promote rural folk song. Barth, Leipzig 1807.
  • Orthographic sheets and exercise pieces. A tool to facilitate and promote the teaching of spelling and the use of the genitive, dative and accusative; not only useful for elementary schools in towns and villages, but also for the lower classes of higher elementary schools. Barth, Leipzig 1807.
    • 3rd improved edition, JJ Märker, Reutlingen 1814.
    • 5th improved edition, Barth, Leipzig 1818.
    • 6th improved edition, Barth, Leipzig 1821.
    • 8th improved edition, Barth, Leipzig 1830.
    • 9th improved edition, Barth, Leipzig 1838.
    • 10th improved edition, Barth, Leipzig 1847.
  • Handbook for elementary school teachers who want to get to know the latest and most appropriate teaching methods 3 volumes, Basse, Quedlinburg 1817/1826/1828
  • Handbook for teachers who want to practice mental arithmetic for two or three student groups at the same time according to different levels. With brief indications for easy calculation of the tasks provided here and with explanations of these indications by means of examples. 3 parts. Basse, Quedlinburg 1827.
  • Instructions for the preparation of written essays, in an orderly sequence of the simplest exercises. A handbook and auxiliary book for teachers in elementary and middle schools, as well as in the lower grades of high schools. Barth, Leipzig 1830; 2nd improved edition, ibid. 1835.
  • Small letter tray for country schools. In addition to an explanation of common foreign, especially French, words and an added pronunciation of the latter, at the same time useful for village chiefs and other country people. Heinrichshofen, Magdeburg 1830.


  • Wolfgang Mayrhofer: Baumgarten, Johann Christoph Friedrich. In: Guido Heinrich, Gunter Schandera (ed.): Magdeburg Biographical Lexicon 19th and 20th centuries. Biographical lexicon for the state capital Magdeburg and the districts of Bördekreis, Jerichower Land, Ohrekreis and Schönebeck. Scriptum, Magdeburg 2002, ISBN 3-933046-49-1 .
  • Arendt: Johann Christoph Friedrich Baumgarten. In: New Nekrolog der Deutschen. Volume 25, Part 2, Weimar 1849, No. 165, pp. 510-513.


  1. Wolfgang Mayrhofer: "With the virginibus, writing is only a vehiculum to promote lust". The long way of the Magdeburg students and teachers to equality. In: Eva Labouvie (ed.): Life in the city. A cultural and gender history of Magdeburg. Böhlau-Verlag, Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-412-07804-2 , pp. 255-277.
  2. ^ Address book of the city of Magdeburg, Magdeburg 1817, page 93
  3. EF Liweh, address book of the city of Magdeburg , Magdeburg 1823, page 109
  4. ^ Wolfgang Mayrhofer: Baumgarten, Johann Christoph Friedrich . In: Magdeburger Biographisches Lexikon (first: Magdeburg 2002), updated article online on the website of the University of Magdeburg .