The Judenkirchhofsfeld is a historical name for the parcels 159, 160/1 and 160/2 in corridor 12 opposite the large parcel “Lathwiesen” south of the city of Einbeck , in the floodplain of the Ilme . It is used for agriculture today. An early modern Jewish cemetery was located here.
The medieval Jewish cemetery
In the 15th century, a Jewish cemetery near the city of Einbeck is mentioned twice; In both cases it is about the localization of real estate:
- 1453 a garden belonging to the city council (ie in a location close to the city) "by der yodden kerkhove";
- 1454 Heinrich Bothes lands "by dem olden joddenkerkhove";
Wilhelm Feise gathered from a manuscript in the city archives that this old Jewish cemetery was in front of the Altendorfer Tor, near the Bone Hauer-Gildegraben (ie today's mayor's wall). The location of the cemetery in front of the Altendorfer Tor was also taken over by Thomas Kellmann in 2017, but decided not to locate it more precisely.
Feise took from an unprinted article by Harland that the priest at Einbeck's market church , Johann Velius , had been driving the Jews out of Einbeck shortly after 1579 through inciting sermons . The Jewish cemetery was also destroyed in this pogrom, "the corpse stones were smashed or used as building blocks." After that, no Jewish families lived in Einbeck for about 100 years.
After the fire in Einbeck's Neustadt in 1826, Moritz Falk discovered a tombstone in the rubble of the corner property at Hullerser Strasse / Marktstrasse (Propfe colonial goods store around 1900) that was dated 11 Tevet 5160, ie December 10, 1399. The Jewish community provided the stone behind the Old Synagogue . It was an incompletely preserved tombstone of a woman. Harland wrote about it: “Behind the local synagogue there is a corpse stone which, according to the inscription, must be about 460 years old. This corpse stone was found by chance in the house of a Christian when everything was cleared up after the great fire of 1826. "
In 1961 this tombstone was lost.
The cemetery in the Judenkirchhofsfeld
In a document from the year 1582 a Jewish cemetery near Einbeck is mentioned: the Salzderheldener shepherds are supposed to “as soon as you pass the Reinser Landwehr, between the road and the pastures (which are to be covered with stones), up to the Jewish cemetery “Use the wasteland. Feise interpreted this source as meaning the Jewish cemetery field near the Reinser Landwehr. It is the new cemetery, in contrast to the old cemetery in front of the Altendorfer Tor. "This cemetery still exists, the inscriptions can still be read on some stones."
When a Jewish community formed again in the 18th century, they used this property as a cemetery, which was completely unsuitable for this purpose. It was about 1 km in front of the Benser Tor, but still within the Einbeck Landwehr. When the Ilme flooded, burials were not possible there. The burial mounds were washed away, the paths were impassable.
The following field names are found on field map 18 by Koven (1747):
- "Jews Kirch-Hoff",
- "The puddle of Jews",
- "On the Jewish church-hope".
In 1787 the Jewish community paid for the planting of a hedge so that the area was protected from grazing. In 1788 the cemetery area was enlarged through purchase. In 1828 the cemetery was completely occupied, as grave sites exist forever according to Jewish law. A garden in front of the Ostertor on Taterngasse (today Rabbethgestraße) was set up as a new Jewish cemetery. The mayor Elias Hirsch Meyersberg wrote about the situation in the old Jewish cemetery that he was exposed to vandalism due to his lonely situation. The gravestones were "deliberately mutilated and broken." The hedge was destroyed, the posts and posts of the enclosure were stolen.
The continued existence of the old cemetery and its graves remained a concern of the Einbeck Jewish community; so in 1865 she turned down an offer to buy from the coupling commission, which wanted to set up a parade ground there and suggested moving the tombstones to the new Rabbethgestraße cemetery. At that time the cemetery had a natural stone wall, and there was also an old population of trees there.
In 1940 the city administration of Einbeck forced the only remaining member of the Jewish community executive to sell the 5 ar 3 square meter plot to the city. The sales price was withheld in order to pay for the complete clearing of the cemetery and the burial of the bones in a collective grave. The Judenkirchhofsfeld was then leased for agricultural use.
As part of the reparation negotiations, the Judenkirchhofsfeld was handed over to the JTC . Today's owner is the State Association of Jewish Communities in Lower Saxony e. V.
When the bypass road was built in 1993, the route of which leads directly past the Judenkirchhofsfeld, the city of Einbeck had a memorial stone ( ) erected with the following text:
"Judenkirchhofsfeld. A Jewish cemetery has been located here since the late Middle Ages. It was destroyed at the end of the 16th century in connection with the persecution of the Jews, but was again used as a cemetery from the 18th century until 1827. In 1940 it was finally destroyed by the Nazi regime. "
- Wilhelm Feise : On the history of the Jews in Einbeck , Einbeck 1902. - Reprint: Stadt Einbeck (Hrsg.): On the history of the Jews in Einbeck. Three essays, Einbeck 1988, pp. 3-15.
- Thomas Kellmann: City of Einbeck. (Monument topography of the Federal Republic of Germany, architectural monuments in Lower Saxony, Volume 7.3), Michael Imhof Verlag 2017, pp. 476–477. ISBN 978-3-7319-0511-0
- Werner Prieß: Integrated into the bundle of life. Jewish cemeteries in the city of Einbeck. In: Elke Heege (Ed.): Lost, but not forgotten. Jewish life in Einbeck. Oldenburg (Isensee) 1998, pp. 73-89. ISBN 3-89598-562-7
- Wilhelm Feise: On the history of the Jews in Einbeck . S. 4 (This is the essay: Einbeck before entering the row of cities; the author is said to have been Klinckhardt.).
- Thomas Kellmann: City of Einbeck . S. 476 .
- Wilhelm Feise: On the history of the Jews in Einbeck . S. 6 .
- Wolfgang Kampa: The Jewish cemetery on Taternweg. Retrieved January 11, 2018 : “The beginning of the inscription no longer exists. Underneath there is a newer inscription: "From 14th Jjar 586" after the small number, that is from 21st May 1826. That was the day of the great fire on which the stone came out again. "
- Einbeck. In: Jewish Encyclopaedia. Retrieved January 9, 2018 : "An old and mutilated tombstone still exists to record the interment of a Jewess in the year 5160 (= 1400)."
- HL Harland: History of the city of Einbeck . tape 2 , p. 153 (Kellmann, on the other hand, thinks that the stone was found near the Old Synagogue (p. 476)).
- HL Harland: History of the city of Einbeck . tape 2 . Einbeck 1859, p. 229 .
- Wilhelm Feise: On the history of the Jews in Einbeck . S. 4 (That probably means that Feise saw gravestones in the Jewish cemetery field in 1902, which he attributed to the late 16th century.).
- Thomas Kellmann: City of Einbeck . S. 477 .
- Thomas Kellmann: City of Einbeck . S. 477 .
- Werner Prieß: Integrated into the bundle of life . S. 79 .
- Jewish History and Persecution. In: Topography of Consolidation - Southern Lower Saxony. Retrieved on January 9, 2018 (the localization in the village of Amelsen is grossly incorrect): "A memorial stone has been standing on the bypass at the old Jewish cemetery at Reinser Tor in Amelsen, the so-called Judenkirchhofsfeld."