Colony Stimulating Factor

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Colony stimulating factors ( Engl. Colony stimulating factors , CSF ) are a group of growth factors and are among the cytokines . They cause bone marrow stem cells to multiply and mature , and some CSFs are also able to increase the activity of the differentiated hematopoietic cells. This makes them one of the most important regulating substances for the immune system.


CSF in the narrower sense are:

  • G-CSF (granulocytes)
  • M-CSF (macrophages or monocytes)
  • GM-CSF (granulocytes and macrophages)
  • Meg-CSF (megakaryocytes, also known as thrombopoietin)
  • S-CSF (stem cells, also called SCF - stem cell factor - in the literature)

In addition, a number of other cytokines functionally belong to this group:

A part of the literature, however, deviating from the scheme given here, only counts G-CSF, M-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-3 among the actual CSF.

The CSF are formed by a number of different cell types: stromal cells of the bone marrow , endothelial cells , fibroblasts , macrophages , T and B lymphocytes . Like other growth factors , CSF are produced through autocrine secretion .

In contrast to other membrane-bound substances of the haematopoietic system, CSF are soluble.

Although functionally closely related, the respective sequences of the CSF are by no means homologous. The CSFs also show no sequential homology with other known growth factors or oncogenes . The corresponding membrane receptors are co-expressed, but they are different. This suggests that they are not evolutionarily descended from a common precursor molecule.

Therapeutic use

Today, CSF are also genetically engineered and administered as a drug. In the follow-up treatment of chemotherapy and radiation therapy , CSF support the regeneration of the blood-forming system . G-CSF, for example, has a beneficial effect on the course of treatment-related neutropenia .

Also Promegapoietin , a group of synthetic CSF analogs, which are also the production of megakaryocytes stimulating is concomitantly used in chemotherapy for faster regeneration of the blood cells. It works by stimulating the signaling pathways of interleukin-3 and thrombopoietin ligands.

Individual evidence

  1. Daniel Boujard, Bruno Anselme, Christophe Cullin, Céline Raguénès-Nicol: cellular and molecular biology at a glance . Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-642-41761-0 , pp. 438 .
  2. a b Björn Lemmer , Kay Brune (Ed.): Pharmacotherapy, clinical pharmacology . 14., revised. and updated edition. Springer, Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-642-10540-1 , pp. 278 .
  3. a b Lothar Rink, Andrea Kruse, Hajo Haase: Immunology for beginners . Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-8274-2439-6 , p. 22-24 .
  4. a b c d e f D. Metcalf: The molecular biology and functions of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors. In: Blood . Volume 67, Number 2, February 1986, pp. 257-267. PMID 3002522 . (Review).
  5. a b c d e Male: Immunology (1st German corresponding to 4th English edition), Munich, Jena 2004; ISBN 3-437-41312-0
  6. ^ Daniel R. Barreda et al .: Regulation of myeloid development and function by colony stimulating factors. In: Developmental & Comparative Immunology. Volume 28, Number 5, May 2004, pp. 509-554, ISSN  0145-305X . PMID 15062647 . (Review).
  7. Alberts, Bray, Lewis: Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York 2002; ISBN 0-8153-4072-9 .
  8. MedTerm Medical Dictionary
  9. Kratz-Albers K, Scheding S, Möhle R, Bühring H, Baum C, Mc Kearn J, Büchner T, Kanz L, Brugger W: Effective ex vivo generation of megakaryocytic cells from mobilized peripheral blood CD34 (+) cells with stem cell factor and promegapoietin . In: Exp Hematol . 28, No. 3, 2000, pp. 335-46. doi : 10.1016 / S0301-472X (99) 00152-6 . PMID 10720698 .
  10. Doshi P, Giri J, Abegg A, Favara J, Huynh M, Kahn L, Minnerly J, Pegg L, Villani-Price D, Siegel N, Staten N, Thomas J, McKearn J, Smith W: Promegapoietin, a family of chimeric growth factors, supports megakaryocyte development through activation of IL-3 and c-Mpl ligand signaling pathways . In: Exp Hematol . 29, No. 10, 2001, pp. 1177-84. doi : 10.1016 / S0301-472X (01) 00694-4 . PMID 11602319 .