The Constructivist didactics sees learning as a process of self-organization of knowledge , which is based on the reality and meaning construction of each individual learning individual is taking, making it relatively unique, unpredictable. In constructivist didactics it should be noted that there are different directions. In addition to radical constructivist ways of thinking, there is also socio-cultural constructivism , as represented in particular by Kersten Reich . The following illustration mainly follows this orientation.
A teacher should create as rich, multimodal and communication-oriented environments as possible that address the subjective areas of experience and at the same time contain new “ puzzles ” that invite pragmatic , interactive and creative self-orientation. For example: Interdisciplinary teaching strengthens the cooperation between the students . The art of teaching consists in establishing a chain of optimal discrepancies or dissonances between the learner's original construction of reality (his lifeworld consisting of interpretation patterns ) and that which is scientifically and socially acceptable, which the learner interprets as a contradiction in expectations (perturbation = Disturbance) and want to overcome productively through trial and error (re / de / construct, cf. constructivism (learning psychology) ).
Teaching methods in the sense of constructivist didactics are presented in detail in Kersten Reich's collection of methods.
Theses for a constructivist didactic
- Didactics is no longer the theory of illustration, memory and correct reconstruction of knowledge and truth, but a constructive place where possible to find one's own world
- Didactics refer to open procedures in terms of content and relationships
- Learning is unavailable; it can only be stimulated from outside.
Ten basic assumptions
Ten basic assumptions of modern knowledge psychology (see also Meixner / Müller)
- Knowledge is acquired constructively, depending on previous knowledge, perception, context of action and affects.
- Knowledge acquisition runs individually and unpredictably along an unfinished continuum of stages of interim knowledge.
- Knowledge acquisition cannot be determined, but only directed, since knowledge is self-organizing and emergent .
- In the ideal case, knowledge is networked and therefore productive, flexible and transferable across disciplines.
- By its very nature, knowledge creates meaning and meaning, i.e. it is linguistically sound and can be reconstructed as interpretive knowledge.
- Knowledge is dynamic and is constantly being restructured, both progressively and regressively, which also creates inert and fossilized knowledge.
- Knowledge is socially negotiated and situated.
- Knowledge grows from problem-solving situations and leads to routine solution strategies such as general, creative problem-solving competence in those domains for which the learner becomes an expert who can act functionally.
- Knowledge has an anthropological dimension that is reflected, for example, in ethics , perceptual abilities and memory formation that are not in harmony with the “computer metaphor” of cognition or programmed learning .
- Knowledge mediators see themselves as designers of effective learning environments and try to introduce the learners to certain domains of the expert culture.
Constructivist aspects using the example of learning through teaching
Learning through teaching (LdL) has proven itself in all types of schools and all subjects, but especially in foreign language teaching . The aim is to deepen and intensify the learning process through the assumption of teaching functions by students. Features of constructivist didactics that apply to LdL are the following aspects:
- At LdL, knowledge is built up in a socially negotiated and situated manner.
- The construction of knowledge grows out of problem-solving situations and leads to routine solution strategies such as general, creative problem-solving skills in those domains for which the learner becomes an expert.
- At LdL, the teacher sees himself as a designer of effective learning environments and tries to introduce the learner to certain domains of the expert culture (see also teacher-student relationship ).
- Problem based learning
- Case study (case study method)
- Located learning
- Learning orientation (foreign language teaching)
- Action orientation (foreign language teaching)
- Interactionist constructivism
- Constructive alignment
- Experience-based learning
- Rolf Arnold : I learn, therefore I am. A systemic-constructivist didactic . Auer, Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 3-89670-574-1 .
- Frank Berzbach: The ethics trap. Pedagogical theory reception using the example of constructivism . Bertelsmann, Bielefeld 2005, ISBN 3-7639-1905-8 .
- Marios Chrissou: Technology-supported learning tools in constructivist-oriented foreign language teaching . On the learning potential of authoring and concordance software . Kovač, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 3-8300-4669-3 .
- Clemens Diesbergen: Radical-constructivist pedagogy as a problematic construction. A study of radical constructivism and its application in education . 2nd Edition. Lang, Bern 2000, ISBN 3-906764-28-1 .
- Lena Sophie Kaiser: Constructivism in elementary education. How children create and explore their world . Diplomica, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 3-8428-7923-7 .
- Iris Kolhoff-Kahl: Aesthetic Pattern Formations. A textbook with aesthetic workshops on the subject of dress - body - art . Koaped, Munich 2009, ISBN 3-86736-121-5 .
- Martin Kurthen: Hermeneutic Cognitive Science. The crisis of orthodoxy . Djre, Bonn 1994, ISBN 3-928981-01-3 .
- Jean-Pol Martin : Proposal of an anthropologically based curriculum for foreign language teaching . Narr, Tübingen 1994, ISBN 3-8233-4373-4 .
- Christine McCarthy, Evelyn Sears: Science Education. Constructing a True View of the Real World? In: Philosophy of Education Yearbook . 2000, ISSN 8756-6575 , p. 369-377 ( ojs.ed.uiuc.edu [PDF; 34.9 MB ]).
- Johanna Meixner, Klaus Müller (ed.): Constructivist school practice. Examples of teaching . Luchterhand, Neuwied 2001, ISBN 3-472-04417-9 .
- Johanna Meixner, Klaus Müller: Applied Constructivism. A manual for educational practice in school and at work . Shaker, Aachen 2004, ISBN 3-8322-3061-0 .
- Gerd Mietzel : Educational psychology of learning and teaching . 8th edition. Hogrefe, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 3-8017-2100-0 .
- Klaus Müller (Ed.): Constructivism. Teaching - Learning - Aesthetic Processes . Luchterhand, Neuwied 1996, ISBN 3-472-02713-4 .
- Ludwig A. Pongratz : Shallows in the mainstream. To the criticism of constructivist-systems-theoretical pedagogy . Schöningh, Paderborn 2009, ISBN 3-506-76742-9 .
- Gregor Raddatz: Pedagogy in Free Fall. Post-traditional didactics between negative dialectics and de-construction . Waxmann, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8309-1274-9 .
- Kersten Reich : Constructivist Didactics. The textbook and study book with online method pool . 5th edition. Beltz, Weinheim 2012, ISBN 3-407-25689-2 .
- Horst Siebert : Educational Constructivism. Learning-centered pedagogy in schools and adult education . 3. Edition. Beltz, Weinheim 2005, ISBN 3-407-25399-0 .
- Marc Steen: Learn successfully in heterogeneous classes. Why constructivist didactics should make school . Others, Uelvesbüll 2012, ISBN 3-86247-246-9 .
- Reinhard Voss (ed.): Lessons from a constructivist point of view. The worlds in the minds of children . 2nd Edition. Beltz, Weinheim 2005, ISBN 3-407-25400-8 .
- ↑ pool of methods
- ^ Johanna Meixner, Klaus Müller: Applied constructivism. A manual for educational practice in school and at work . Shaker Verlag , Aachen 2004.
- ↑ For a brief overview of “learning through teaching” cf. Jean-Pol Martin , Rudolf Kelchner: Learning through teaching . In: Johannes-Peter Timm : Learning and teaching English… , 1998, pp. 211–219.