The term massive forming is a collective term for processes in which an approximately three-dimensional body is formed. This includes the forging , extrusion , forging , extrusion , swaging and Thixoforging . The counterpart to massive forming is sheet metal forming in which approximately two-dimensional workpieces are processed, in particular sheet metal.
Many materials are suitable for massive forming. All materials made of steel as well as non-ferrous metals , aluminum , light metals and alloys made of nickel and cobalt can be mass formed. An essential feature of the forging process is the generation of changes in cross-section. They can be achieved by displacing substances and accumulating substances, whereby the methods of displacing substance predominate in application terms.
Forged components are used in the automotive industry , aviation, shipbuilding , rail vehicles, wind turbines , energy systems and in power plant construction. The technological development in plant and vehicle construction requires the use of forged components, which have ever lower weights and high energy and material efficiency. Further characteristics of forged components are: transmission of static and dynamic forces, high temperature and acid resistance as well as recyclability.
More than a third of all forged parts from Germany are exported. Together with the system manufacturers, vehicle construction accounts for over 80 percent of total production.
- Kopp, Wiegels: Introduction to Forming Technology. Verlag der Augustinus Buchhandlung, Aachen 1998, ISBN 3-86073-666-3 .
- Hinkfoth: massive forming. Wissenschaftsverlag, Mainz / Aachen 2003, ISBN 3-86130-184-9 .
- Industrieverband Massivumformung : Textbook Massivumformung in a nutshell. , April 2013, ISBN 978-3-928726-32-0 .
- Eckart Doege, Bernd-Arno Behrens: Handbook Forming Technology: Fundamentals, Technologies, Machines. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-642-04248-5 .