Parenteral literally means "past the intestine ", "bypassing the intestine" (in ancient Greek παρά pará "next to" and ἔντερον énteron "bowels, intestines") and describes the way in which substances or pathogens get into the body while bypassing the intestinal tract . In medical and pharmaceutical terms, however, the term is usually more narrowly defined. The pharmacopoeia defines parenterals as “sterile preparations intended for injection, infusion or implantation into the human or animal body”.
Parenteral application forms are:
- intravenous injection or infusion (into a vein )
- intra-arterial injection or infusion (into an artery )
- intramuscular injection (into a skeletal muscle )
- intrathecal injection (into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord )
- subcutaneous injection (under the skin )
- intraperitoneal injection or infusion (into the abdominal cavity )
- intracardiac injection (into the heart )
- intravitreal injection (into the vitreous humor of the eye)
- intraosseous application (in the bones ).
- Instillation into the urinary bladder
- intranasal use of powders (for spraying into the nose)
Pharmaceutically the parenteral according Pharmacopoeia be divided into injection preparations, infusion preparations, as well as powders , concentrates and gels for the production of injection or infusion preparations, and implants .
The reason for the parenteral administration of many drugs is to avoid the first-pass effect , which often weakens the effectiveness of most drugs.
The parenteral infection describes routes of infection, pathogens can take as a portal of entry other than through the intestine.
- KH Bauer, K.-H. Fromming, C. Führer: Pharmaceutical Technology. 2nd edition, Thieme Verlag (1989), p. 279.
- E. Mutschler, G. Geisslinger, HK Kroemer, P. Ruth, M. Schäfer-Korting: drug effects . Textbook of pharmacology and toxicology. 9th edition. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart 2008, p. 7, ISBN 3-8047-1952-X .
- European Pharmacopoeia 6th edition, basic work (Ph.Eur. 6.0), p. 1024.