Quirinus was a god of the ancient Roman religion .
Origin and cult
Quirinus was probably originally a deity of the Sabines , because his cult in Rome is connected with the inhabitants of the Quirinal hill named after him, who are said to have been Sabine settlers. He was a god of war , similar to Mars , who later almost completely replaced him in this capacity. Quirinus was then identified with Romulus , the first king of Rome raised among the gods.
Quirinus, along with Jupiter and Mars, was one of the most important gods of early Roman times, who later each had their own priest (the flamines maiores ). In addition to the flamen Quirinalis , the Salii Collini also carried out cult acts for Quirinus. The cult festival, the Quirinalia , took place on February 17th.
The term Quirites (" Quiriten ") for the citizens of Rome is derived from the name of Quirinus.
There is evidence of a sacellum Quirini for early Roman times , but it is not known where this sanctuary was located.
The Quirinus temple on the Quirinal was built in 293 BC. Consecrated by the consul Lucius Papirius Cursor after a vow made by his father of the same name and furnished with booty from the Samnite Wars. It was near the Porta Quirinalis of the Servian Wall . After the temple was built as early as 206 BC. Was struck by lightning, it burned in 49 BC. Partially down. 45 BC The Senate had a statue of the dictator Gaius Iulius Caesar erected in the temple . Augustus had the temple restored and consecrated it on June 29, 16 BC. The new temple was a Dipteros Doric order with an eight-column front.
- Konrat Ziegler : Quirinus. In: The Little Pauly (KlP). Volume 4, Stuttgart 1972, column 1314 f.
- Georg Wissowa : Religion and cult of the Romans. Beck, Munich 1902, pp. 139-141, digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dreligionundkult00wissgoog~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3Dn157~ double-sided%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D
- Sacellum et Aedes Quirini , in: Platner / Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1929)
- Quirinus in: The large art dictionary by PW Hartmann .
- ^ Cassius Dio 41, 14, 3 ( English translation) .
- ^ Marcus Tullius Cicero , ad Atticum 12, 45 and 13, 28 ; Cassius Dio 43, 45, 2 ( English translation) .
- ↑ Monumentum Ancyranum 19 and app. 2 ; Cassius Dio 54, 19, 4 ( English translation) .
- ↑ Vitruvius 3, 2, 7.