Sensorimotor skills

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As sensorimotor (also Sensumotorik ) refers to the interaction of sensory and motor performance. This means the control and monitoring of the movements of living beings in conjunction with sensory feedback.

Perception of the stimulus by the sensory organs and motor behavior are directly related. These processes run in parallel, such as B. between the eye, ear and the targeted control of arm and foot movements when driving a car. Sensorimotor skills are the interaction of the sensory systems with the motor systems.

The relationships between brain and nerve activity, as well as movement sequences, are examined in disciplines such as neuroscience , but also in sports science . The reconstruction of disturbed sensorimotor functions is, for example, the subject of occupational therapy and physiotherapy . It is important to ensure that there are natural time windows for motor development that are particularly suitable for (new / re) learning movements. If this optimal learning age is missed, it is much more difficult to train movement processes with all their feedback. The concept of sensorimotor functions serves both to train and improve movement. It is a natural process that is used in prevention and therapy, e.g. B. Short foot ) can be used to better perform movements and movement patterns. The learned sequence of the processes and their feedback play an important role here, since switching processes that have been learned can only be switched again by relearning (more difficult than relearning ). For example, the speed of fast reading is limited by the fact that when learning to read the reader first reads aloud, i. This means that an actually unnecessary detour via motor centers (control of the larynx and lips ) is learned. It is similar with sprinting: Even the fastest sprinters can only manage a little more than 2.2 double steps / second, although they can do up to 7 revolutions / second on the stationary bike (which roughly corresponds to the double steps in terms of innervation). Since toddlers are very dependent on feedback processes with regard to their balance when learning to walk, it is not possible for the sprinter to get along on a completely flat plastic track without such time-consuming feedback.

Jean Piaget has intensively researched the development of early sensorimotor performance in childhood (see stage of sensorimotor intelligence ). For the later learning age, more complex psycho-social conditions have to be taken into account. In order to achieve highly qualified movements ( circus , competitive sport, etc.), however, it is necessary to use the optimal learning age ( window of opportunity ).

See also

Individual evidence

  1. JF Yang, D. Livingstone, K. Brunton et al .: Training to enhance walking in children with cerebral palsy: are we missing the window of opportunity? In: Semin Pediatr Neurol. 20 (2), Jun 2013, pp. 106-115.
  2. ^ Arnd Krüger : Sprinting ability and information processing capacity of humans. In: The teaching of athletics. 30, No. 44/45, 1979.
  3. Arnd Krüger: When should children start exercising? In: P. Lösche (Ed.): Göttinger Sozialwissenschaften today. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1990, pp. 278-308.


  • HJ Luhmann: Sensorimotor systems: posture and movement. In: R. Klinke , HC Pape , A. Kurtz, S. Silbernagl (eds.): Textbook Physiology. 6., completely revised Edition. Thieme , Stuttgart / New York 2009, ISBN 978-3-13-796006-5 , pp. 757-798.
  • W. Laube: Sensorimotor system. Thieme, Stuttgart / New York 2009, ISBN 978-3-13-148371-3 .

Web links

Wikibooks: Sensorimotor skills in physical education  - learning and teaching materials