Soviet General Staff Map
The Soviet General Staff map or (full text) Topographic maps of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR (Russian: Топографические карты Генерального штаба Вооружённых сил СССР [Topografitscheskije karty Generalnowo schtaba SSSR]; or short Карты советского генштаба [Karty sowjetskowo genschtaba]) denote a topographical map series of the earth, created on behalf of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR ( Soviet Army ).
These topographical maps with topographical city maps, topographical overview maps, special maps, coordinate catalogs and aerial photography documents are summarized under the collective term topographical documents .
Competencies for creation and distribution
The maps of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR (Maps of the Soviet General Staff), also General Staff Map, were produced under the auspices of the Central Administration for Geodesy and Cartography at the Council of Ministers of the USSR (ru Ministrow SSSR]) published. This authority planned, organized and directed the topographical-geodetic security within the Soviet Union. This included the creation / updating, production and (for the civilian sector) the provision, distribution and return (sales) of all topographical and geodetic documents and devices.
The Administration of Military Topography (ru. Военно-топографическое управление [Voenno-topografitscheskoje uprawljenije]) in the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR was responsible for topographical and geodetic security within the armed forces. This type of safeguarding of combat operations includes in particular the specific supply (provision, distribution / supply, return) with topographical documents (map material, etc.).
In 1991, the Military Topographical Service of the Armed Forces of Russia was created, which was transformed into the Topographical Service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in 1992 . The topographic service is currently managed by the Military Topography Administration of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
In addition, the Ministry of Defense of the USSR coordinated the creation of the global map series ( world map 1: 2,500,000 ; ru. Карта мира [Karta Mira]) through the special military geography department in the General Staff . To this end, the General Staff and the Staff of the United Armed Forces organized cooperation with the specialist departments at the alliance partners of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WVO) and with friendly states.
The military cartographic service of the GDR (MKD, Halle / Saale location), for example, also produced topographical documents in Russian, Polish and Czech as part of its supply contract.
From 1976 a world map 1: 2,500,000 was available for military-geographic work, which had been drawn up jointly by seven participating states of the Warsaw Treaty (Bulgaria, GDR, ČSSR, Poland, Romania, Hungary, USSR). The GDR took over the processing of rooms in North, West and Southwest Europe as well as on the South American continent. The publication of the second edition could no longer be completed in 1990/91.
Since during the "Cold War" the military geographic and topographic documents, the entire surveying and mapping system and especially the thematic special maps were subject to very strict secrecy (as classified information ), little is known about the products of the (military) topographic service and the marine hydrographic service known in public and abroad.
The Federal Ministry of Defense (Vienna, 2006) describes and assesses the development of military geography, military topography and sea hydrography using the example of the former USSR alliance partner, the German Democratic Republic (GDR), in a monograph. Using comprehensive documentation, it primarily evaluates the work and achievements of the Military Topographical Service (MTD) of the National People's Army (NVA) and the Sea Hydrographic Service (SHD) of the GDR and provides more detailed explanations using numerous map examples. The evaluation judgment is that in the armies of the participating states of the Warsaw Treaty technically excellent topographical and thematic maps have been developed, which are particularly impressive due to their usability for troops, uniformity of representation and the extent of the processing.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the topographic maps are also available to civilians. For numerous remote and sparsely populated regions of the world, the map is the best, and in some cases the only topographic map material that is currently available.
The topography of the landscape is shown in great detail on the maps . In the larger scales, even the smallest settlements are included and also labeled. The cards are labeled in Cyrillic or, for special purposes, in several language versions (e.g. in German and Russian). All maps are provided with contour lines .
The maps contain information on the geographical coordinates and the Gauß-Krüger coordinates on the edge of the sheet . All maps are based on the geodetic date " Pulkowo 1942" and the Krassowski ellipsoid .
In total, the series of scales consists of nine scales. However, there are differences in the sheet cut in the scale series 1: 200,000. The scale 1: 75,000 was only used in Latvia for historical reasons .
|scale||cover||Name (example)||Map sheets per map 1: 1,000,000||annotation|
|1: 1,000,000||Latitude 4 ° longitude 6 °||M-36||1||Based on the IWK|
|1: 500,000||Latitude 2 ° longitude 3 °||M-36-A||4th||А, Б, В, Г (NW, NE, SW, SE)|
|1: 300,000||Latitude 1 ° 20 ′, longitude 1 °||VI-M-36||9||Roman numerals I – IX|
|1: 200,000||a) latitude 40 ′ longitude 1 °||M-36-XX||36||Roman numerals I – XXXVI|
|b) latitude 40 ′, longitude 2 °||M-36-XV||18th||Roman numerals I – XVIII|
|c) latitude 1 ° 20 ′ longitude 2 °||M-36- (5)||9||1–9 (each sheet contains four sheets of variant a)|
|1: 100,000||Width 20 ′ length 30 ′||M-36-102||144||1-144|
|1: 75,000||Width 15 ′ length 30 ′||102-Karsava||Latvia only|
|1: 50,000||Width 10 ′ length 15 ′||M-36-102-Б||576||А, Б, В, Г (NW, NE, SW, SE)|
|1: 25,000||Width 5 ′ length 7 ′ 30 ″||M-36-102-Б-б||2304||а, б, в, г (NW, NE, SW, SE)|
|1: 10,000||Width 2 ′ 30 ″ Length 3 ′ 45 ″||M-36-102-Б-б||9216||1, 2, 3, 4 (NW, NE, SW, SE)|
- Russian Military Mapping: A Guide to Using the Most Comprehensive Source of Global Geospatial Intelligence. Minneapolis: East View Cartographic, 2005. ISBN 978-0-9742973-1-6
- Author collective: Military geology of the GDR. Military geography, military topography, military hydrography, military topographical service, sea hydrographic service, topographic maps, special and sea maps in the German Democratic Republic, from the beginnings to reunification. In: Gerhard L. Fasching, Federal Ministry for National Defense (Hrsg.): Series of publications of the military geography, No. 20., Vienna 2006, December, 237 p., 17 attachments.
- Military Encyclopedia Dictionary (Russian): Военный Энциклопедический Словарь [Wojenny Enziklopeditscheskij Slowar]. Moscow 1986, 864 pp.
- Possibility to download many map sheets (1: 50,000 to 1: 1,000,000) of the eastern northern hemisphere Vlasenko.net
- Some map sheets, from the area of the northern hemisphere, online Loadmap.net
- Soviet Military Topographic Mapping - background information
- Sheet cuts for some selected countries Stanford University
- Legend (Engl.)
- See naming under URL: https://yandex.ru/images/search?text=%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1 % 84% D0% B8% D1% 87% D0% B5% D1% 81% D0% BA% D0% B8% D0% B5% 20% D0% BA% D0% B0% D1% 80% D1% 82% D1 % 8B% 20% D0% B3% D0% B5% D0% BD% D1% 88% D1% 82% D0% B0% D0% B1% D0% B0% 20% D1% 81% D1% 81% D1% 81 % D1% 80 & stype = image & lr = 10407 & source = tags & tab_id = images ; Accessed July 29, 2019.
- See collective of authors: Military Lexicon. 2nd Edition. Military Publishing House of the GDR, Berlin 1973, p. 365.
- Military Encyclopedia Dictionary (Russian): Военный Энциклопедический Словарь [Wojenny Enziklopäditscheskij Slowar]. Moscow 1986, p. 745.
- See authorities brochure for the 195th anniversary: Administration of Military Topography of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation - 195 years , (ru.). Moscow 2007, p. 10. Russ. Orig .: Ведомственная брошюра ВТУ Генштаба ВС РФ - 195 лет. Москва 2007 г., С. 10.
- See (ru.) Under URL: https://structure.mil.ru/structure/ministry_of_defence/details.htm?id=9715@egOrganization
- Gerhard L. Fasching, Rene Pfahlbusch: The state geography of the GDR. In: Gerhard L. Fasching, Federal Ministry for National Defense (Hrsg.): Series of publications of the military Geowesens, No. 20. Vienna 2006, p. 26 ff.
- Author collective: Military geography of the GDR. Military geography, military topography, military hydrography, military topographical service, sea hydrographic service, topographic maps, special and sea maps in the German Democratic Republic, from the beginnings to reunification. In: Gerhard L. Fasching, Federal Ministry for National Defense (Hrsg.): Series of publications of the military geography, No. 20., Vienna 2006, December, 237 p., 17 attachments.