Language didactics

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In research and teaching, language didactics deals with the acquisition of linguistic communication skills . It deals with the teaching of teaching and learning new forms of language or a language , with the teaching of written and linguistic competence and with the reflection of language in the sense of increased linguistic awareness.

Based on systematic procedures, i.e. clear theoretical, psychological and pedagogical principles, language didactics pursues the following goals: learners acquire language knowledge, practice and reflect on both normative and creative use of language , improve their stylistic competence (receptive and productive of text) and develop their ability on language reflection in a target language.

Historical beginnings

Language didactics generally arise when the language and the handling of fictional texts in a culture become an institutional task. In the European cultural area this development already occurred in the 5th century BC. At the time of the Sophists in Greece. At the beginning of the modern era, there was a tendency in Western Europe to systematically record their own national languages ​​in order to be on a par with the “holy” languages Latin , Greek and Hebrew .

Task fields and content areas

Language didactics applies equally to school and adult education . The first possible influence of language didactics begins with the entry of the learner into primary level . Linguistic action and thus the ability to communicate are the starting point and destination of the lesson.

The tasks of language didactics in research and teaching are divided into

  • oral language acting
  • written language acting, including writing and spelling
  • Dealing with texts and media, including reading
  • Examining language

Oral language action is the ability to actively and purposefully change a situation in the intended way through verbal utterances. It is a medium of teaching because the majority of the teaching of all school subjects, especially development and understanding, takes place in the oral language. In the subject of German, orality is on the one hand a medium, on the other hand it is also the subject of a lesson that addresses speaking with one another and makes it accessible for reflection.

In written language action are from the beginning the write and the spelling learning integrated because only by their usefulness can be produced. In this area of ​​responsibility, writing skills are developed, which develop in a coherent, clearly structured text specific to the text type and linguistically appropriate to the point of being able to deal with a topic appropriately, target-oriented, consciously and independently.

The use of texts already sets acquired writing and reading skills advance. By dealing with texts more precisely: examining and reflecting on their linguistic design, the learner gains text competence. Text competence means the ability to specifically process, expand, deepen and change knowledge through text reception and text production . The field of research related to this competence is that of literacy research: “Literally is a society that puts its knowledge primarily in texts and obtains it from texts, and that builds its institutions - education, religion, science, law - on text traditions and text criticism. "

The examination of language promotes language awareness and can therefore be classified in the area of ​​the meta-level of linguistic competence. Elementary knowledge of grammatical terms and the resulting language-analytical procedures enable the learner to deal with language and language systems in a reflective and experimental way. What is traditionally called "grammar lessons" in general education schools is (only) part of this task and should not become independent: the acquisition of declarative knowledge of language (knowing terms) alone is no guarantee of language awareness or even the ability to use language to be able to explain independently. The availability of linguistic knowledge for text production, especially the improvement of draft texts, is by no means a given.

All four fields of activity must not be understood as autonomous areas, but are mutually dependent. The acquisition of the skills resulting from the task areas is ultimately the goal of language didactics.


  • U. Abraham: StilGestalten. History and systematics of the talk of style in German didactics. Theoretical foundations, didactic problems, methodological perspectives. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1996 , ISBN 3-484-31161-4 .
  • U. Abraham: Speaking as a Reflexive Practice. Oral use of language in a competence-oriented German class. Klett / Fillibach, Stuttgart, 2nd, updated. u. exp. Edition 2016, ISBN 978-3-12-688069-5 .
  • G. Augst (Ed.): Text - Types - Competence. A real longitudinal study on the development of text literacy in elementary school age. Peter Lang, Frankfurt / M .: 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-55555-2 .
  • H. Bartnitzky: Language lessons today. Language didactics - teaching examples - planning models. Cornelsen Verlag Scriptor, Berlin, 17th edition 2014, ISBN 978-3-589-05181-6 .
  • U. Bredel, H. Günther, P. Klotz, J. Ossner, G. Siebert-Ott (eds.): Didactics of the German language. A manual . 2 volumes. utb Schöningh, Paderborn 2003, ISBN 978-3-8252-8237-0 .
  • Ch. Goer, K. Köller (Ed.): Fachdidaktik Deutsch. Basics of language and literature didactics. (= UTB. Volume 4171). Fink, Paderborn 2014, ISBN 978-3-8252-4171-1 .
  • H. Glinz : History of language didactics. In: U. Bredel, H. Günther, P. Klotz, J. Ossner, G. Siebert-Ott (eds.): Didactics of the German language. Volume 1, Schöningh, Paderborn / Munich / Zurich / Vienna 2003, pp. 17-29.
  • M. Habermann (Ed.): Grammar why? The benefits of grammar knowledge in everyday life and in school . Duden-Verlag, Mannheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-411-04316-3 .
  • J. Ossner: Language Didactics German. An introduction. 2nd Edition. utb Schöningh, Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-506-75630-5 .
  • S. Schmölzer-Eibinger (Ed.): Text competence. A key competence and how to convey it (FS for Paul R. Portmann-Tselikas) . Narr, Tübingen 2007.
  • W. Steinig, H.-W. Huneke: German language didactics. 4th, updated Edition. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-503-15587-3 .
  • H. Zabel (Hrsg.): Study book: Introduction to the didactics of the German language and literature. (= Study books on language and literature didactics. Volume 1). Schöningh, Schöningh, Paderborn / Munich / Zurich / Vienna 1981, ISBN 3-506-78701-2 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Language didactics  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

See also

Individual evidence

  1. "Speaking and talking to one another, speaking and listening: The learning area dedicated to the use of oral language is - like German lessons as a whole - that subject-specific course that has to organize and make the meeting, the mutual and interrelation of specialist knowledge and language knowledge fruitful. Here, if anywhere, learners learn that language is a medium of knowledge and that it is never just about verbally clad knowledge that has already been given. " (Abraham 2016, p. 7)
  2. H. Feilke in Schmölzer-Eibinger (Ed.) 2007, p. 30.
  3. "During the writing process, this declarative knowledge is hardly available, as it can hardly be linked to the upcoming procedural task." (Steinig / Huneke 2015, p. 174)