Foreign language didactics

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Foreign language didactics is the scientific subject of teaching and learning foreign languages ​​in educational institutions or in private lessons. As a theory of teaching practice , it reflects the interaction of the institutional, personal and technical-content conditions of foreign language teaching (see reference sciences ) and derives well-founded suggestions and recommendations for its goals as well as the design of suitable teaching arrangements.

Research priorities

The central subject of foreign language didactics as subject didactics is the teaching and learning of languages ​​that the learner does not master as mother tongues , but as foreign or second language (= L2 ). to be learned. It deals accordingly

  • with the process of teaching and learning (i.e. it relates both to the teacher and their methods and strategies as well as to the students and their individual learning processes),
  • with the language, its (oral and written) manifestations as well as its socio-cultural embedding as a subject
  • and the respective institutional learning context (guidelines and curricula, school conditions, classrooms and organization, etc.).

In Germany, the box at the Scientific Colleges ( universities , in Baden-Wuerttemberg also at colleges of education ) as well as in the seminars for school Practical training (see. Teacher traineeship institutionalized). In the Anglo-Saxon region, one usually speaks of “Second Language Acquisition Research”.

Research methods

Several procedures are common in foreign language didactic research:

  • Analytical-nomological procedures : Statistical procedures with control of the variables, standardized test methods, quantification of test results and evaluation with the help of statistical methods; Quality criteria: objectivity (traceability and reproducibility of the results), reliability (accuracy of data collection and measurement) and validity (validity of the results in relation to the object of investigation)
  • Exploratory-interpretative (hermeneutic) procedures : recording of complex areas of reality (“factor complexion” in teaching) with the aim of changing them; most important criteria: validity (i.e. the research project actually captures what it wants to investigate), as well as objectivity and reliability ; In contrast, statistical criteria such as variable control and standardization of the procedures play a subordinate role. Essential research instruments are introspection ("thinking aloud", diaries), questioning (various forms of interviews, group discussions, questionnaires), observation (with audio or video recordings) as well as the collection and analysis of documents accompanying lessons (weekly schedules, timetables, teaching materials, student reviews, Portfolios etc.).

Of course, the methods used in practice cannot always be clearly assigned to one or the other category. A combination of several method approaches takes place above all in the so-called method triangulation (e.g. combination of statistical data evaluation with additional questioning of the students and teachers involved and evaluation of accompanying documents).

Action research is a special case of exploratory-interpretive research that is particularly closely related to researching and changing existing teaching practice :

  • Action Research :

For example, while research on the history of institutions and guidelines takes place in a hermeneutical and interpretative manner , research in the field of methodology is oriented towards practice. There are different approaches here. As a rule, theories are developed in science and tested in practice. Action research is a very fruitful research methodological approach that is seldom used in foreign language didactics (because it is time-consuming and labor-intensive) . Here the researcher enters the field to be examined and actively works on its optimization. On the one hand, this approach raises questions regarding the reliability and objectivity of the results, on the other hand, this approach ensures a close connection between theory and practice in research.

Development of foreign language didactics in Germany

"Didactics" and "Methodology"

Until the 1960s, the terms “ didactics ” and (more often) “ methodology ” were not used systematically. Only with the greater involvement of the most varied of related sciences in the old methodology, as a result of which the development of teaching methods from the school sector increased in the institutions of teacher training and advanced training at the universities of teacher education , later also at a growing number of universities and seminars The term "didactics" began to gain acceptance. The term “foreign language didactics” has been used systematically in Germany since the beginning of the regular workshops of foreign language didactics (from 1963), which were replaced in 1991 by the congresses for foreign language didactics (organized by the German Society for Foreign Language Research ).

In the following, individual methods are only described in relation to one another insofar as this appears necessary for the presentation of the development of foreign language didactics in the sense of a theory of foreign language teaching . For a more detailed description of the development of teaching methods (with references) cf. the main article Methodological History of Foreign Language Teaching .

The development of didactic reflection on teaching methods

Grammar translation method

The methodology of the newer foreign languages (English and French) at grammar schools, which gradually developed in the 19th century , was initially based on the grammar-translation method of ancient language teaching. The teaching of grammar was largely deductive , i.e. H. Example and exercise sentences were derived from a given rule. The aim of the language lessons was an intellectual-formal (insight into the language laws of the foreign language) and cultural (regional and literary) education of the students, which manifested itself in particular in the ability to translate literary texts from the foreign language and to interpret them in terms of their educational content. (See in more detail the main article grammar translation method , the section grammar translation method within the article method history of foreign language teaching and the section grammar translation method within the article foreign language teaching .)

Reform Movement / Direct Method

Above all, Wilhelm Viëtor opposed the distant nature of the grammar translation method with a pamphlet (published under the pseudonym “Quousque Tandem” = “How long then?”) The language teaching must reverse! (1882). With it began the so-called "reform movement", which was oriented towards the goals of the increasingly emerging " (upper) secondary schools ": inductive derivation of grammatical rules and as far as possible avoidance of the use of the mother tongue and thus of translation. (See in more detail the section on the Reform Movement / Direct Method within the article on the history of methods of foreign language teaching .)

Audio-lingual and audio-visual method

The development of the audiolingual habit theory on the basis of the descriptive-structuralistic description of “sentence patterns” ( Leonard Bloomfield , 1933, CC Fries, 1952) and the behavioristic learning theory based on the stimulus-reaction scheme ( John B. Watson , 1924; Burrhus F. Skinner , 1957) led to the development of the “audio-lingual method” (also behavioristic methods ) from the 1940s, especially in the USA . The main aim was to develop oral listening and speaking skills. Central method was the systematic practice of "set patterns" ( patterns ) on situationally embedded, based on imitation and repetition exercises structural pattern ( pattern drills ), paradigmatic Put in in sentence switchboards ( "substitution tables") and forming exercises. The correct use of a structure was confirmed by the immediately following learning reinforcement , i.e. H. confirmed by confirmation that the answer was correct. The aim of this procedure was to develop “ speech habits ”. While the audio-lingual textbooks in the USA mostly provided a native-language translation of the output dialogues, as Butzkamm proves, the audio-visual texts should be semantized in one language with the help of the accompanying picture strips. In Germany, this method only became widespread after the publication of the German edition of Robert Lado's Moderner Sprachunterricht (1967).

In this context, the language laboratory became the preferred practice location from the 1950s (in the USA) and 1960s (in Germany) . In contrast, reading and writing skills were only practiced secondarily. However, they then played a disproportionately large role in class work in Germany. Conscious grammar work, as far operated ever done - as in the direct method - induction .

In particular, the work of the Center d'Étude du français Élémentaire in Saint-Cloud (from 1951), since 1959 under the name Center de Recherche et d'Étude pour la Diffusion du Français (CREDIF), led to the connection of the audiolingual method conception with the integrative Use of audiovisual teaching aids / media (P. Guberina, 1965). The purpose of using auditory and / or visual teaching materials (media) was primarily to trigger stereotypical linguistic reactions by presenting clear situations (stimuli) and thus to contribute to the development of speaking habits. Auditory media (which also provided native language models) were primarily records, tape and cassette recorders, and later also the language laboratory . Visual media were (in addition to real objects) blackboard pictures (with keywords or line drawings), flash cards, sticky boards, wall pictures, pictures / series of images, slides / series of slides, and later also foils for the overhead projector, film and television. According to Butzkamm, however, the representatives of audiovisual methods could not meet the claim of using the images to appropriately semantize the basic texts in monolinguals.

Mediating method

In the aftermath of the Second World War , there was a strong return to traditional educational goals and educational content, as they had been decisive in foreign language teaching of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In addition, the audio-lingual / audio-visual method also became more and more popular in the 1960s. In the course of time something like a "mediating method" (a term that was not particularly widespread) developed, but in many cases it was characterized by great uncertainty among teachers and method clashes:

  • The principle of "monolingualism" as well as the requirement of the direct method as well as the audio-lingual / audiovisual method for inductive grammar work contradicted the educational efforts aimed at mental-formal training, the specificity of target language grammar structures as well as lexical, idiomatic and stylistic characteristics on the background of the corresponding German equivalents clarify and convey “values” in foreign language lessons, as in German lessons.
  • The stereotypical, situationally often only weakly embedded systematic structural pattern exercises collided with the effort to develop practical speaking skills in real communication situations.
  • The primacy of the oral in class clashed with the primacy of the written in class work.

The consequence of this uncertainty was a return to the old grammar translation method that was often observed .

The most important representatives of this inconsistent methodological approach were Adolf Bohlen (1952), Friedrich Schubel (1958) and Fritz Leisinger (1967) as well as, especially for the secondary school, Harald Gutschow (1964, 1978) (so-called " secondary school method").

Communicative method concepts

The pioneers of the current methodological currents are the result of a paradigm shift in the foreign language didactic discussion at the beginning of the 1970s. The central question was: What is the actual goal of foreign language teaching in schools? The much-discussed book

  • H.-E. Piepho : Communicative competence as an overarching learning goal in English lessons. Dornburg / Frickhofen 1974.

gave the answer in the title and fundamentally changed foreign language didactics and thus also the training of foreign language teachers in Germany (see Communicative Turnaround ). (CJ Brumfit & K. Johnson (eds.): The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching . Oxford, 1972, had previously appeared in England .) During the development of communicative didactics, a number of contemporary publications on communicative competence played primarily on social philosophy ( Jürgen Habermas ) on the one hand and linguistics on the other ( speech act theory and pragmalinguistics ; cf. in particular JL Austin , D. Hymes and JR Searle ) play a decisive role.

With this communicative method approach , the technologized stereotypes of the audiolingual / audiovisual and the uncertainties of the mediating method were broken up. Teachers and students increasingly acted as “communication partners”, whereby the learning objective “emancipation” also came into play, at least to some extent. Above all, however, the communicative approach was also based on the social requirements of foreign language use (foreign language requirements, ability to communicate in specific contexts of use in specific roles to pursue certain speech intentions). Various publications of the Council of Europe that appeared in the 1970s were decisive for the formulation of these needs and teaching objectives. Important authors of a communicative method were, besides Hans-Eberhard Piepho , in particular Manfred Pelz (1977), HG Widdowson (1978), Christoph Edelhoff (1978) and Wolfgang Pauels (1983).

Expansion of the range of methods: action orientation, holism, learning orientation

For the didactic justification of these further developments of communicative method concepts since the 1980s, to which in Germany Gerhard Bach , Michael K. Legutke, Renate Löffler and Johannes-Peter Timm , in Austria Herbert Puchta and Michael Schratz contributed, cf. the special items

Important basic works:

  • G. Bach , J.-P Timm (Ed.): English lessons. Basics and methods of action-oriented teaching practice. 5th updated edition. A. Francke, Tübingen / Basel 2013.
  • MK Legutke: Lively English lessons. Communicative tasks and projects for active foreign language teaching. Kamp, Bochum 1988.
  • MK Legutke, H. Thomas: Process and Experience in the Language Classroom. Longman, London / New York 1991.
  • Renate Löffler, K. Schweitzer: Brainlinks. Building blocks for a holistic English lesson. Beltz, Weinheim 1988.
  • H. Puchta, M. Schratz: Learning by action in English classes. 3 volumes. Hueber, Munich.
  • J.-P. Timm (ed.): Holistic foreign language teaching. Deutscher Studien Verlag, Weinheim 1995.
  • J.-P. Timm (Ed.): Learning and teaching English. Didactics of English Lessons. Cornelsen, Berlin 1998.

"Learning by teaching"

Since the early 1980s, Jean-Pol Martin has developed the foreign language teaching and learning method

in an ongoing process of action research (see also above ). LdL is an independent and highly successful method. It is also used selectively in many forms of action-oriented foreign language teaching; However, if the method is used only occasionally and unsystematically - without prior training phases with the class - it can hardly develop its full potential.

Basic work:

Foreign language lessons begin early

Foreign language lessons that begin at an early age can start in kindergarten; however, it is mostly understood to mean foreign language teaching in the primary level (elementary school). The connection between foreign language didactic and elementary school pedagogical aspects is essential for his didactic concept: "The primary level foreign language lessons are designed in such a way that children are to be addressed in their specific feelings and thinking in a developmentally appropriate way." In terms of content and method, foreign language lessons beginning at an early stage therefore differ significantly from foreign language lessons in secondary school I and II. Nikola Mayer names four essential principles for this:

  • Primacy of listening comprehension
  • Oral primacy
  • Securing the pronunciation
  • Holistic learning: moving and moving learning.

Under the heading of holistic learning , Mayer lists the following factors:

  • Language and Movement: Total Physical Response
  • Sound event language: songs. Rhymes and chants
  • Stories as the silver bullet: storytelling as well
  • Intercultural learning in primary school.

For the methodology of early foreign language teaching cf. also

  • C. Jaffke: Foreign language teaching at primary level. Its justification and practice in Waldorf education. 2nd Edition. Weinheim 1996.
  • W. Maier: Foreign languages ​​in elementary school. An introduction to their didactics and methodology. Berlin / Munich 1991.
  • G. Schmid-Schönbein: Didactics: Elementary School English . Berlin 2001.

For the development of the didactics of early foreign language teaching cf.

  • H. Sauer: Texts and information on the early start of foreign language lessons. Paderborn 1974.
  • H. Christ: Acquisition of foreign languages ​​in preschool and primary school age. In: Bausch, Christ, Krumm (ed.): Handbook of foreign language teaching. 2007, pp. 449-454.

The way into the 21st century: educational standards and standard orientation

Since the 1990s , questions of quality assurance and quality management in schools have been increasingly discussed in the bodies responsible for education in Europe . In particular the shock waves generated by the TIMSS study ("Third International Mathematics and Science Study", 1997; since 2003: "Trends in Mathematics and Science") and the two PISA studies ("Program for International Student Assessment") by 2001 and 2003 respectively, as well as the publication issued by the Council for Cultural Cooperation within the Council of Europe

led to a number of profound changes in the design of foreign language teaching in schools. Since the so-called "Klieme-Expertise", they have primarily been linked to the terms "educational standards" and "standard orientation".

Educational standards as "requirements for teaching and learning in school" and "goals for educational work" are defined as follows:

"Educational standards as conceived in this report take up general educational goals . They name the competencies that the school must impart to its students in order to achieve certain central educational goals. The educational standards determine which competencies the children and young people up to one The competencies are described so concretely that they can be implemented in tasks and, in principle, recorded with the help of test procedures . [...] Educational goals thus formulate expectations for the development of each individual pupil, and at the same time they oblige them Society and its educational institutions to create appropriate development opportunities. "

In its remarks on the above-mentioned " Common European Framework of Reference for Languages ", the "Klieme-Expertise" specifies these requirements with regard to foreign language learning:

"The competence model of the reference framework is defined as a linguistic model of action. This model describes what it means to be able to speak a (foreign) language, everything that goes with it and how the respective degree of proficiency in each dimension, in each sub-competence (verbal) is best formulate is. "

As a result of these efforts, foreign language research is currently primarily shaped by the identification of specific educational goals, the development of appropriate competence models for foreign language learning and the formulation of related educational standards. First of all, the publications of the Standing Conference on the educational standards for the first foreign language (English or French) are decisive :

  • KMK (= Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Education Ministers of the Länder ). (Ed.): Educational standards for the first foreign language (English / French) for the secondary school leaving certificate. Kluwer, Munich 2004.
  • KMK (Hrsg.): Educational standards for the first foreign language (English / French) for the secondary school leaving certificate (grade 9). Kluwer, Munich 2005.

Foreign language didactics and curricula will increasingly have to adapt to these quality assurance and quality management measures. It should not be forgotten, however, that foreign language teaching must not be limited to the teaching of language skills, but must also include the areas of education with which the early foreign language didactics strived for a comprehensive personality development of the students: knowledge and appreciation of the foreign language (s), literature (s) and culture (s) - an endeavor that is now often referred to under the term " intercultural educational standards" and z. B. is investigated and promoted by the graduate college "Didactics of Foreign Understanding" at the University of Giessen.

Supplement to foreign language teaching: bilingual subject teaching

The so-called bilingual subject teaching (at European level: Content and Language Integrated Learning = CLIL) is not a type of foreign language teaching, but foreign language teaching in a subject such as history, politics, geography, biology and technology. In contrast to actual foreign language lessons, the foreign language is used as a “working language” and therefore exclusively related to content and communication. From a foreign language didactic point of view, it is these foreign language activities in a context that is not influenced by foreign language didactics that are decisive for promoting foreign language learning.

Of course, bilingual subject teaching should not only be seen in terms of its potential for foreign language learning, even if this aspect still dominates in the foreign language didactic discussion. For the curricular further development and consolidation of this type of teaching, it is therefore necessary first of all to develop an independent didactics of bilingual subject teaching in cooperation with subject and foreign language teaching staff , which goes beyond method concepts based purely on the subject and purely on foreign language teaching.

For fundamental considerations on the didactics of bilingual subject teaching cf. the contributions by Stephan Breidbach, Heike Rautenhaus, Eike Thürmann and Helmut J. Vollmer in:

  • G. Bach , S. Niemeier (ed.): Bilingual teaching. Basics, methods, practice, perspectives. 3. Edition. Frankfurt am Main 2005.

For the methodology of bilingual subject teaching (in principle as well as subject-specific) cf. also

  • C. Finkbeiner (Ed.): Bilingual teaching. Teaching and learning in two languages. Hanover 2002.

For an overview of the development of bilingual subject teaching in Germany cf.

  • W. Zydatiß: Bilingual subject teaching in Germany: a balance. In: Foreign languages ​​teaching and learning. Volume 36, 2007, pp. 8-25.

In addition to the methodology of bilingual subject teaching, to optimize foreign language learning in this context, however, it is necessary to systematically link bilingual subject teaching and actual foreign language teaching with each other in terms of organization and concept .

Foreign language didactics and related disciplines

In addition to foreign language didactics, foreign language teaching and learning research (often just "language teaching research") has been emerging since the 1970s , the subject of which is the interaction of concrete teaching and learning processes in the complex set of conditions in foreign language teaching (so-called “factor complexation” in foreign language teaching); it goes back to the initiative of a priority funding program “language teaching research” by the German Research Foundation in 1973.

For research on foreign language teaching and learning or "language teaching research " cf.

  • W. Edmondson, J. House: Introduction to Language Teaching Research. 4th, revised. Edition. Francke, Tübingen / Basel 2011.

To distinguish between "foreign language didactics" and "language teaching research" cf.

  • K.-R. Bausch, H. Christ, H.-J. Krumm: The teaching and learning of foreign languages ​​as a subject of science. In: K.-R. Bausch et al. (Hrsg.): Handbuch Fremdsprachunterricht. 5th edition. Francke, Tübingen / Basel 2007, pp. 1–9.

In his book “Psycholinguistics of Foreign Language Instruction” (1989), Wolfgang Butzkamm tried to establish a connection with language acquisition research (natural first and second language acquisition).

In addition to the established scientific areas of foreign language didactics and foreign language teaching and learning research / language teaching research, the term " foreign language research " was introduced from the end of the 1980s in the course of the establishment of the German Society for Foreign Language Research, "with the intention of naming a research area that is not connected to a specific institutionalized subject. Both language teaching researchers, second language acquisition researchers and foreign language didactics can therefore work together under the 'organizational umbrella' of foreign language research (Timm and Vollmer 1993). " (W. Edmondson, J. House: Introduction to language teaching research. 4th, revised edition. Francke, Tübingen / Basel 2011, p. 15).

For foreign language research cf.

  • J.-P. Timm, HJ Vollmer: Foreign language research: On the conception and perspectives of a scientific area. In: Journal for Foreign Language Research. Volume 4, H. 1, 1993, pp. 1-47.

Insofar as questions of foreign language teaching, especially with regard to the teaching of communicative competence , vocabulary and grammar , can be clarified by resorting to relevant findings from linguistics , applied linguistics also plays a role in this context.

On “Applied Linguistics” in relation to foreign language teaching, cf. z. B.

  • J. Allen et al. (Ed.): The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics. 4 volumes. London 1973-1977.
  • T. van Els et al .: Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching of Foreign Languages. London 1984.
  • K. Johnson, H. Johnson (Eds.): Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. Oxford 1998.
  • T. Harden: Applied Linguistics and Foreign Language Didactics. Narr, Francke, Attempto, Tübingen 2006.

Individual references and sources

  1. Cf. in more detail: Rüdiger Grotjahn: "Concepts for research into teaching and learning of foreign languages: research methodological overview.". In: Bausch, Christ & Krumm (eds.), 2007, pp. 493–499; Daniela Caspari, Beate Helbig, Lars Schmelter: Research methods: Exploratory-interpretative research. Ibid, pp. 499-505.
  2. See for example the work of Jean-Pol Martin , who has been working on a single project ( learning through teaching ; see below) since 1982. Jean-Pol Martin: The project 'learning through teaching' - didactic research in the field of tension between theory and self-experienced practice. In: M. Liedtke (Hrsg.): Gymnasium: new forms of teaching and education. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn / Obb. 1998, pp. 151-166.
  3. ^ Wolfgang Butzkamm: Enlightened monolingualism. To de-dogmatize the method in foreign language teaching. Heidelberg 1973/1978.
  4. Wolfgang Butzkamm: Critical thoughts on the audiovisual method. In: The Newer Languages. Volume 11, 1971, pp. 581-595.
  5. Nikola Mayer: Where foreign language learning begins: Basics and forms of work in English teaching in primary school. In: G. Bach , J.-P. Timm (Ed.), 2013, p. 62.
  6. ibid., 70ff.
  7. ibid., 76ff.
  8. J. Baumert et al.: TIMSS - Mathematical and natural science teaching in international comparison: descriptive findings. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1997.
  9. PISA Consortium Germany (Ed.): PISA 2000: Basic Competencies of Schoolchildren in International Comparison. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2001 (additional: J. Baumert et al. (Ed.): PISA 2000 - The Länder of the Federal Republic of Germany in comparison: Summary of key findings. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2002) and PISA-Konsortium Deutschland (Ed.): PISA 2003: The educational level of young people in Germany - results of the second international comparison. Waxmann, Münster 2003. - For the area of ​​mother tongue and foreign language learning, the results of the PISA studies are specified in the long-term DESI study .
  10. ^ English: Council of Europe: A Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. CUP, Cambridge 2000. - In the above-mentioned DESI study , in addition to expanding the results of the PISA studies , the competencies defined in the GeR should also be made measurable through standardized test tasks.
  11. ^ E. Klieme et al.: On the development of national educational standards. An expertise. Federal Ministry for Education and Research, Bonn 2003. (= so-called "Klieme-Expertise").
  12. Ibid., 19 and 20.
  13. Ibid., 147.
  14. For a comprehensive discussion of these efforts cf. K.-R. Bausch et al. (Ed.): Educational standards for foreign language teaching on the test bench. Working papers of the 25th Spring Conference on Research into Foreign Language Teaching. Narr, Tübingen 2005.
  15. On this criticism of the so-called " educational standards " cf. also L. Bredella: educational standards and their implementation. In: J.-P. Timm (Ed.): Foreign language learning and foreign language research: skills, standards, forms of learning, evaluation. Narr, Tübingen 2006, pp. 195-120.


On the history of foreign language methodology

  • Louis G. Kelly: 25 Centuries of Language Teaching . Rowley, Mass. 1969. (PDF, 48 MB)
  • Hans Heinrich Stern: Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford 1983.
  • Willi Real: Methodical Concepts of English Lessons . Paderborn 1984.
  • Gerhard Neuner: "Mediation methods: historical overview.". In: Bausch et al. (Ed.), 2007, pp. 225–234.

Overview works

  • Gerhard Bach , Johannes-Peter Timm (Ed.): English lessons. Basics and methods of action-oriented teaching practice. 5th updated edition. Francke (UTB), Tübingen / Basel 2013, ISBN 978-3-8252-4037-0 .
  • Karl-Richard Bausch, Hans-Jürgen Christ, Herbert Krumm (eds.): Handbook for foreign language teaching. 4., completely rework. Edition. Francke (UTB), Tübingen / Basel 2003, ISBN 3-8252-8043-8 . (5th, unchanged edition. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8252-8043-7 ).
  • Wolfgang Butzkamm : Psycholinguistics of foreign language teaching. From mother tongue to foreign language. 3., rework. Edition. Francke (UTB), Tübingen / Basel 2002, ISBN 3-8252-1505-9 . (Reprint: 2007, ISBN 978-3-8252-1505-7 ).
  • Helene ceiling-Cornill, Lutz Küster: foreign language didactics. Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-8233-6474-0 (2nd edition. 2014, ISBN 978-3-8233-6865-6 ).
  • Wolfgang Gehring: English Didactics: An Introduction. Schmidt, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-503-06196-7 .
  • Frank Haß: Didactics in English: Tradition - Innovation - Practice. Klett, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-12-920223-4 .
  • Helmut Heuer, Friederike Klippel: English methodology. Problem areas, teaching reality and recommendations for action. Cornelsen, Berlin 1987. (7th printing 2000, ISBN 3-464-00618-2 ).
  • Werner Hüllen: Didactics of English Lessons. Darmstadt 1979.
  • Keith Johnson: An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching . London 2001.
  • Friederike Klippel, Sabine Doff: English Didactics. Practical handbook for secondary level I and II. Cornelsen Scriptor, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-589-22172-0 .
  • Rüdiger Pfromm: Introduction to language teaching and learning research. French in comprehensive schools and high schools with a view of Europe. 2., unchanged. Edition. Rheinbach 1997, ISBN 3-87062-004-8 .
  • Jörg Roche: Foreign language acquisition and foreign language didactics. 2., revised. u. extended Edition. UTB basics, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8252-2691-6 .
  • Heidemarie Sarter: Introduction to Foreign Language Didactics. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-18942-6 .
  • Johannes-Peter Timm (Ed.): Learning and teaching English. Didactics of English Lessons . Cornelsen, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-464-00619-0 . (8th edition 2011, ISBN 978-3-464-00619-1 ).
  • Ralf Weskamp: Didactics: Basics and Concepts. Cornelsen, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-464-00635-2 .

See also

Web links

  • Conference reports with innovative methods for didactics, using the example of French; also to exchange teachers (documentation since 2003). (Click on each cover picture)