As fallacy be in the music theory forms of cadence escape (from ital. Sfuggir la cadenza ) denotes where the closing sound of a perfect authentic full-circuiting that could decide a piece or a portion of, is modified or replaced by a different sound. The final conclusion is postponed in this way. The most important fallacies, which "cheat" the ear about the expected final effect of the tonic, are those that, as representatives of the tonic, sounded against the tonic parall in major and the tonic in minor . Also Mediantklänge serve as a fallacy. The term (from Italian cadenza d'inganno ) can be traced back to the late 18th century.
From contrapuntal perspective while the penultimate tone below (the Pänultima ) of Bass clause below a cadence framework of tenor and Diskantklausel up instead of jumping a fifth down (or up a fourth):
Since the tenor and soprano clauses remain unchanged (only the bass voice is "responsible" for the flight from the cadence), the result (viewed from the bass) is a doubling of the third in the target sound (an upward tenor clause would result in a fifth parallel to the bass).
Description of stages
From the perspective of functional theory , the dominant is led into a tonic representative instead of the tonic : In major in the tonic parallel ( Tp), in minor in the tonic counter-sound (tG), e.g. B .:
- in C major: C major (tonic) - G major (dominant) - A minor (tonic parallel)
- in C minor: C minor (tonic) - G major (dominant) - A flat major (tonic opposite sound).
- Examples according to Daniel Gottlob Türk :
- This formulation was coined by Nicola Vicentino (1555, p. 54f.) And Gioseffo Zarlino (1558, chap. 54). Evidence from the following centuries is u. a. Bononcini 1673, p. 81 and Walther 1732, p. 125. Germanized variants are u. a. verifiable in Scheibe 1745, p. 478, 687 ("Fleeing the Cadenz") or Marpurg 1753, p. 112 ("Flehender Tonschluss"). In today's German-language music theory, the term “cadence flight” is also common with regard to music of the 18th century; see e.g. B. Daniel 2000, pp. 198ff.
- Wieland Ziegenrücker: General music theory with questions and tasks for self-control. German Publishing House for Music, Leipzig 1977; Paperback edition: Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, and Musikverlag B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz 1979, ISBN 3-442-33003-3 , p. 125.
- Türk 1789, p. 352.
- Hempel 2001, p. 189.
- Türk 1789, p. 352. The music example there consists only of a figured bass. The upper voice realization was added.
Sources and literature (chronological)
- Nicola Vicentino : L 'antica musica ridotta alle moderna prattica , Rome 1555.
- Gioseffo Zarlino : Le istitutioni harmoniche , Venice 1558, part 3.
- Giovanni Maria Bononcini : Musico prattico , Bologna 1673; German translation Stuttgart 1701.
- Johann Gottfried Walther : Musicalisches Lexicon Wolffgang Deer, Leipzig 1732 ( Online at Wikimedia Commons , PDF, 45 MB).
- Johann Adolf Scheibe : Critical music. New, increased and improved edition , Leipzig 1745.
- Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg : Treatise from the fugue , Berlin 1753.
- Daniel Gottlob Türk : Piano School , Leipzig and Halle 1789.
- Diether de la Motte : Harmonielehre , 1st edition 1976, 10th edition dtv, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-423-04183-8 .
- Thomas Daniel: The chorale setting in Bach and his contemporaries. A historical theory of syntax . Cologne: Dohr 2000, ISBN 3-925366-71-7 .
- Christoph Hempel: New general music theory. With questions and tasks for self-control. Supplemented edition: Schott Musik International, Mainz 2001, ISBN 3-254-08200-1 .
- Markus Neuwirth: Fuggir la Cadenza, or the Art of Avoiding Cadential Closure. Physiognomy and Functions of Deceptive Cadences in the Classical Repertoire . In: What Is a Cadence? Theoretical and Analytical Perspectives on Cadences in the Classical Repertoire , ed. by Markus Neuwirth and Pieter Bergé, Leuven: Leuven University Press 2015, ISBN 9789462700154 , pp. 117–155.