Treaty of Alton

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The Treaty of Alton was an agreement between King Henry I of England and his older brother Robert II, known as Curthose , the Duke of Normandy . In 1101 , Duke Robert recognized Henry's claim to power as King of England . In return, Robert received annual cash benefits and other concessions from Heinrich. This agreement temporarily put an end to a crisis in the succession of the Anglo - Norman kings of England.


When William I the Conqueror died in 1087, his inheritance was divided among his three sons as follows:

King Wilhelm II and Duke Robert had agreed that after the death of one of the surviving brothers the inheritance would take over. This would reunite the possession of Wilhelm I, the Kingdom of England and the Duchy of Normandy in one hand.

Wilhelm II died on August 2, 1100 while hunting. Duke Robert II was at this point on the First Crusade . Heinrich, the youngest brother, who had not received any land from his father's inheritance, seized power in England. Robert's participation in the First Crusade and his weak position among the Anglo-Norman barons made it easier for Heinrich to enforce his claim.

Robert did not return from the Holy Land until after Henry I was coronated. Encouraged by his counselor Ranulf Flambard , he declared Henry I's coronation as King of England invalid. He landed with his troops at Portsmouth . In the meantime, however, Heinrich's power had consolidated.

The Alton Treaty and its implications

Robert and Heinrich met in the market town of Alton , Hampshire . In the agreement, Robert renounced his claim to power in England in return for an annual payment of 3,000 marks. Robert and his entourage were allowed to return to Normandy . Both brothers also agreed to assist each other in punishing the traitors.

The agreement did not last long. In 1105 Heinrich marched into Normandy and defeated his brother on September 28, 1106 in the battle of Tinchebray ( Orne department , France ). Duke Robert was captured and held by his brother in England until his death in 1134. The Duchy of Normandy remained under the control of the English crown for almost 100 years. In 1204 France recaptured the continental part of Normandy. The Channel Islands , also known as the Norman Islands , are still the crown property of the Kings of England to this day .


  • Cross, Arthur Lyon: A History of England and Greater Britain , Macmillan, New York, 1917