Onset of action

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The onset of action ( English Onset of action ) describes the time to onset of action after receiving an active ingredient . In the case of psychoactive substances , the rate of onset of action is sometimes referred to as the influx speed .


The onset of action depends on the one hand on the substance and on the other hand on the form of administration . The flow rate for oral intake is z. B. Amphetamine (about 5 to 20 minutes) higher than MDMA (20 minutes up to 2 hours). The lowest rate of influx (slowest onset of action) generally occurs with oral consumption, followed by nasal and rectal administration. The highest flow rate (fastest onset of action) occurs with intravenous administration and with inhalation .

The onset of action depends, among other things, on the kick , the addiction potential and the toxicity of a substance. For example, smoking the free cocaine base is assumed to be more addictive than nasal consumption of cocaine hydrochloride ; likewise, the intravenous administration of opiates such as morphine or heroin (diamorphine) leads to a more rapid and stronger formation of addiction than with oral or transdermal administration ( fentanyl ), as is the case with e.g. B. is common in pain patients.


Individual evidence

  1. K. Wiedemann: Biomarkers in the development of psychotropic drugs. In: Dialogues Clin Neurosci. (2011), Volume 13, No. 2, pp. 225-234. PMID 21842620 ; PMC 3182003 (free full text).
  2. ^ R. Machado-Vieira, G. Salvadore, N. Diazgranados, CA Jr. Zarate: Ketamine and the next generation of antidepressants with a rapid onset of action. In: Pharmacol Ther. (2009), Vol. 123, No. 2, pp. 143-150. doi : 10.1016 / j.pharmthera.2009.02.010 . PMID 19397926 ; PMC 2726824 (free full text).
  3. Günther Bernatzky, Reinhard Sittl, Rudolf Likar: Pain Treatment in Palliative Medicine . Springer, 2006. ISBN 9783211252895 . P. 257.
  4. Carl Joachim Wirth, Wolf-Eberhard Mutschler, Hans-Peter Bischoff, Hans Püschmann, Johann Neu: Complications in orthopedics and trauma surgery: avoid - recognize - treat. Thieme, 2009. ISBN 9783131597816 . P. 111f.
  5. Roland Kunz, Eckhard Beubler, Jürgen Sorge: Compendium of drug pain therapy: Effects, side effects and possible combinations. Springer, 2012. ISBN 9783709112823 . P. 44.