Yakiniku ( Japanese 焼 (き) 肉 , eng. "Grilled meat") describes the technique of preparing meat on a grill the Japanese way.
Origins and Distribution
Japan has a long history of recurrent official bans on meat consumption. It was not until the Meiji Restoration in 1871 that the ban was finally lifted for all social classes with the intention of getting closer to western customs and meat found widespread use in the menu of the Japanese. The Tenno (Emperor) Meiji drove the campaign for eating meat on himself by publicly on 24 January 1873 ate beef. The terminology originated from this time, since in 1872 in the then famous cookbook Seiyō Ryōritsu ( 西洋 料理 通 , for example: Manual for Western cuisine ) by Kanagaki Robun and the Seiyō Ryōri Shinan ( 西洋 料理 指南 , for example: Introduction to the Western cuisine ) by Keigakudō Shujin translated the terms for grilled meat and steak with yakiniku ( 焼 肉 ) and iriniku ( 焙 肉 ). Later, however, the term for "steak" was replaced by the loan word suteki .
The classic yakiniku was initially clearly influenced by the Korean dishes Bulgogi and Galbi and spread in Japan in the 20th century during the Shōwa period after the end of World War II. Some sources deny this and point to a primarily Japanese-inspired origin, while others argue that originally Korean dishes were modified and thus adapted to the Japanese palate. In special restaurants ( horumonyaki , ホ ル モ ン 焼 き ) this grilled meat was served, often also under the name chōsen ryōri ( 朝鮮 料理 , in the sense of "Korean cuisine"). After the division of the Korean peninsula in the course of the Korean War , changes to the nomenclature were made, as many of the well-disposed restaurants towards the south now rather advertise the kankoku ryōri ( 韓国 料理 , "South Korean cuisine"), as the term chōsen or kita chōsen of the old, undivided Korea has now been claimed by North Korea. After all, all restaurants were grouped politically correctly under yakiniku restaurant, regardless of their assignment .
To further increase the popularity of Yakiniku contributed ventilated grill systems (such. As by the company Shinpo Co. in March 1980 brought to market) in, because you could now dine in the restaurants without the nuisance caused by smoke, causing a Kundenanstrom led. When the restrictions on the import of beef were relaxed in 1991, this naturally boosted the popularity of yakiniku . On the other hand, the outbreak of BSE in the early 2000s temporarily clouded the joy of eating meat in Japan. In 1993, the All Japan Yakiniku Association proclaimed August 29 to be the official “Yakiniku Day” ( yakiniku no hi ). This refers to a play on words in the Japanese language as the date 8 月 29 日 with a little imagination like ya- (tsu) ki-ni-ku- (no) -hi (8 = ya, month = tsuki, 2 = ni , 9 = ku) can be pronounced.
The yakiniku restaurants that are widespread today come from the Korean restaurants in Osaka and Tokyo, which opened there from 1945. In these places the customer can order raw ingredients - generally beef or giblets and vegetables - individually or as a set, which are then served to the table. Then you cook the ingredients on a grill that stands on the table or is integrated into it. A charcoal fire ( sumibi , 炭火 ) or an electric or gas grill is used for this. Before consumption, the food is dipped in sauces ( tare ). These sauces usually consist of a mixture of soy sauce , sake , mirin , sugar, garlic, fruit juice and sesame seeds. Korean side dishes such as kimchi , nameul or bibimbap are often served with the main course.
Yakiniku can also take place at festivals ( matsuri ) on the street or even in your own four walls. A popular grill for this is the Shichirin , as it is compact and easy to use and can cook for several hours.
Common variants of yakiniku
With Jingisukan ( ジンギスカン , the Japanese transliteration of Genghis Khan ), a type of preparation is meant of grilled mutton. This dish was invented in Hokkaido , where it was particularly popular among the working class, and from there it spread across the country. Jingisukan is first mentioned in 1931. It writes the in Sapporo living Tokuzo Komai to which was inspired by the grilled mutton dishes from northeastern China.
Other common forms are also:
- with beef
- Rōsu - pieces of square
- Karubi or baraniku - short ribs. Comes from the Korean galbi . Mostly served boneless in Japan, otherwise it is known as hone-tsuki-karubi .
- Harami (ハ ラ ミ) - tender meat from the diaphragm.
- Tan - beef tongue. Comes from the English tongue . Usually served with chopped spring onions , salt and lemon juice.
- Misuji - tender shoulder.
- with pig
- Butabara - pork belly.
- P-toro or tontoro - fatty meat from the cheek and neck.
- with offal ( horumon or motsu . Horumon means what is thrown away in the Kansai dialect.)
- Rebā - beef liver. Comes from the German liver .
- Tetchan - intestines. Comes from the Chinese da chang (大肠). Belongs to horumon .
- Hatsu - heart. Comes from the English heart .
- Kobukuro - pig uterus. Popular due to the gristly texture.
- Tēru - beef tail on the bone. Comes from the English tail .
- Mino or Hachinosu - beef tripe.
- Gatsu - pig stomach. Comes from the English gut .
- Seafood - squid, clams, shrimp.
- Vegetables - peppers, carrots, shiitake and other mushrooms, onions, cabbage, eggplant, bean sprouts, garlic and pumpkin are popular.
- ↑ drhnakai.hp.infoseek.co.jp (Japanese) ( Memento from March 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ 洋 食 欧米 食 と 和 食 と の 融合 , Kikkoman Institute for International Food Culture (Japanese).
- ^ What made Japan join the fast-food nations? In: The Japan Times , March 11, 2007.
- ↑ api.porta.ndl.go.jp (Japanese)
- ↑ 西洋 料理 通. 巻 上, 附録 / 仮 名 垣 魯 文 編; 暁 斎 画 . Retrieved November 28, 2017 (Japanese).
- ↑ kindai.ndl.go.jp (Japanese)
- ↑ Michael Weiner: Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Indigenous and colonial others . ( google.com ).
- ↑ a b pulgogi.net: History of Yakiniku
- ^ John Lie: Zainichi (Koreans in Japan): Diasporic Nationalism and Postcolonial Identity . Ed .: University of California Press. 2008, ISBN 978-0-520-25820-4 , pp. 73 ( google.com ).
- ↑ Company Shinpo ( Memento of 13 February 2008 at the Internet Archive ) Shimpo Co., Ltd. released a smokeless grill ( mosumakku ) in March 1980.
- ↑ Kazuhiro Soga from the Kansai food business society ( Memento from December 3, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ onekoreanews.net ( Memento from October 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ 焼 肉 の た れ 辛 口 . Retrieved November 28, 2017 (Japanese).
- ↑ 焼 肉 の た れ 醤 油味 . Retrieved November 28, 2017 (Japanese).
- ^ The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea - How Korean Cuisine Can Compete in the World. Retrieved November 28, 2017 .
- ↑ 探 偵 団 が た ど る ジ ン ギ ス カ ン 物語 . In: Hokkaido Shimbun . Archived from the original on January 21, 2010 ; Retrieved November 28, 2017 (Japanese).
- ^ Ghengis Khan gets hip In: The Japan Times
- Katarzyna Joanna Cwiertka: Modern Japanese cuisine: food, power and national identity
- John Lie: Multiethnic Japan - Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-674-01358-1
- Yakiniku Web , official website of the All Japan Yakiniku Association (Japanese)
- Life picture of east Asia Feb. 2008, Kanagawa University (Japanese), p. 112