Japanese soy sauce - Industrial Kikkoman production , 2012
|Jyutping||zoeng 3 jau 4|
|Long characters||豉 油|
|Jyutping||si 6 yaw 4|
|Quốc Ngữ||xì dầu|
|Hán tự||豉 油|
|Kana||し ょ う ゆ|
Of all the soy sauces on the market, the Japanese and Chinese soy sauces are best known in German-speaking countries . In the case of Chinese products, a distinction is generally made between the light and dark variants. Soy sauces are also characterized by different manufacturing processes. For traditionally fermented - "brewed" - soy sauces, microorganisms require Kōji - Aspergillus flavus var. Oryzae and Aspergillus sojae . Weeks or months for fermentation , in industrial production this can be accelerated by additives. Because of the glutamate split off from the rice and wheat proteins during fermentation , soy sauce is a natural flavor enhancer .
The quality of soy sauce is assessed in a sensory test called “Kikimi” in Japan . Four criteria are important for tasting: color, consistency, smell and taste. As part of the Japanese “Kikimi”, these criteria are tested one after the other. The so-called fifth dimension of taste umami is also tested.
Origins in china
Soy sauce originated in ancient Chinese and developed from the products chǐ - 豉 - "salted, fermented soybeans" - and jiàng - 醬 / 酱 - "fermented soybean paste". In the late Western Han Dynasty (207 BC to 9 AD), Chǐ and jiàng were already goods of great economic importance. In contrast, the sources on soy sauce from this period are rather vague.
The historically earliest written mention of the term soy sauce in today's spelling - 醬油 / 酱油 , jiàngyóu - can be found in two recipe collections from the Southern Song Dynasty (1126–1279): " Wúshì Zhōngkuìlù " - 吳氏 中 饋 錄 / 吴氏 中馈 录 - "Ms. Wu's recipe collection" - and " Shānjiā Qīnggōng ". It describes the use for seasoning meat dishes, vegetables and seafood.
It can be assumed that soy sauce, under other names, was known much earlier. What makes the clear assignment more difficult is the slight etymological shift in meaning that the word jiàng - 醬 - has experienced over time: It was originally a generic term for spicy pastes and sauces made from various pickled, fermented ingredients, for example meat - 肉醬 , ròu jiàng , fish - 魚 醬 , yú jiàng , wheat , rice and (soy) beans - 豆醬 , dòu jiàng . After all, jiàng was mainly understood to mean the paste made from fermented soybeans - without any more precise specification by a prefix .
Soy sauce found its way to Japan in the 6th century - at the time of Sui or Tang China - through a Buddhist religious community that banned the consumption of meat and sauces based on it and therefore brought Chinese soy sauce to Japan. The Chinese soy sauce became popular very quickly after its import into Japan, as it enriched the taste of the then rather monotonous rice-based food. It was also found that soy sauce could preserve food longer. In the 16th century, attempts were made with the original Chinese soy sauce, which was made only from soy beans, salt and water, and the Japanese soy sauce was born. In addition to the soybeans, an equal proportion of wheat was added to this. In addition, the Japanese soy sauce was "brewed" longer - fermentation time - than the Chinese. In this way, both the taste and the aroma and color of the soy sauce could be changed significantly.
There is also the real tamari sauce - Miso-Damari; Uwahiki, which is also known as soy sauce, but this is not entirely true, as miso damari is the liquid residue left behind in making miso .
Import to Europe
Japanese soy sauce
Typical of Japanese soy sauce is a high proportion of wheat as the starting ingredient, which results in a stronger sweetness compared to Chinese sauces. However, varieties with little or no wheat are also produced, for example tamari . Furthermore, a certain proportion of alcohol is typical, which among other things has a preservative effect.
The total production volume in Japan in 2001 amounted to 10.3 million hecto liters , 52% in the highest quality - naturally fermented.
The starting ingredient is - Japanese - soybeans. They are ground, steamed and mixed with roasted and ground wheat meal. The enrichment with specific microorganisms - Kōji - creates a dry mash - Moromi . This is mixed with salt and water to a pulp. This is filled into barrels made of cedar wood - taru - in which the grain can ferment . While the mixture of soy, wheat, salt and water matures in the solid bioreactors , the taste- defining enzyme reaction takes place , in which the soy protein is broken down into individual amino acids , which determine the color, aroma and flavor of the soy sauce. As with wine , numerous factors influence the end product: the temperature when the beans are first mashed and the weather in the following months, the material of the barrels, the cellar they are in, the water that was used, and even the beans. Artisanal soy sauce therefore tastes different from year to year and from barrel to barrel. The ripening period can be between six and eight months, but also several years, with some top-quality sauces even up to five years. At the end of the ripening period, the now almost finished soy sauce is wrapped in textiles and pressed, filtered and finally pasteurized to give it a longer shelf life guarantee.
|Taste - type of
|濃 口 - strong, intense||薄 口 - mild, light||た ま り - tamari||白 - bright, white||再 仕 込 - brewed twice|
|description||most common variety; strong aroma; Soybeans and wheat in similar proportions||milder taste; Soybeans and wheat in similar proportions||very little wheat content||high proportion of wheat||Instead of brine, Koikouchi-Shōyu is used; Intense taste accordingly|
|colour||dark brown||light brown||dark brown||golden yellow||dark brown|
|Typical for the region||Japan; Once only the Kantō region||Kansai region||Chūbu , Nagoya region||-||-|
(g / 100 ml)
(g / 100 ml)
(ml / 100 ml)
|2.68||3.13||0.15 B||Tracks B||Tracks B|
There are different quality levels: Special Grade - Tokkyū , 特級 ; Upper Grade - Jōkyū 上級 ; Standard Grade - Hyōjun , 標準 and Extra Select, Tokusen 特 選 and Ultra-Extra Select - Chō-tokusen , 超 特 選 .
There is also an unpasteurized raw sauce called Nama-shoyu or Kijōyu - called 生 醤 油 . Salt-reduced variants are called genes - 減 塩 - 50% less or Usujio - 低 塩 - 13% less.
In addition to the traditional fermentation described above, more cost-effective manufacturing processes have been developed in which the production time of months and years - as is usual with traditional production - is reduced to a few days.
However, hydrolysis at high temperatures creates certain proportions of undesirable components such as furfural , dimethyl sulfide , hydrogen sulfide and levulinic acid , which are not present in natural fermentation. Since the soy sauces produced in this way also differ significantly in taste from the naturally fermented sauces, they are z. Sometimes mixed with high-quality soy sauces. In many cases, other ingredients such as flavors , glutamate , sugar, preservatives and caramel are added for coloring.
To distinguish them from industrially produced soy sauce, traditionally manufactured products are usually explicitly marketed with the addition of “naturally brewed” or “naturally fermented”. 100% traditionally naturally fermented according to the original recipe - Honjōzō hōshiki - 本 醸 造 方式 , 30–50% traditionally naturally fermented according to a new recipe - Hinshiki hōshiki - 新式 方式 .
Other soy sauces
Various soy sauces are also produced in other Asian countries.
In China , the Jiàngyóu sauce, i.e. soy sauce - 醬油 / 酱油 - is traditionally made from soybeans only, other recipes also allow additional ingredients. A distinction is made in the production of Chinese soy sauces according to their fermentation time between Tóuchōu - 頭 抽 / 头 抽 - "first creation", Shēngchōu - 生 抽 - "young creation" and Lǎochōu - 老抽 - "older creation". There are also soy sauces based on the type of ingredient recipe, such as Shuānghuáng - 雙 璜 / 双 璜 - "double fermentation of the molds ". In Taiwan there is Yìnyóu - 蔭 油 / 荫 油, known as "fermented sauce" . Another yìnyóu sauce made from black soybeans is the so-called Hēidòu yīnyóu - 黑豆 蔭 油 / 黑豆 荫 油 .
In Indonesia , the kecap sauce is known, a thick, sweet, syrup-like soy sauce, which is made from black soybeans, roasted grain, manioc , salt, palm sugar or raw sugar as well as a "kecap-kōji" Aspergillus spp. , Tempeh is also used for inoculation. In Malaysia , the syrup-like sauce is called kicap .
In Korea the soy sauce is called Ganjang - 간장 . There are the types Hansik-ganjang - 한식 간장 or Jaelaesig-ganjang - 재래식 간장 - a traditional sauce that can be divided into three ages. A modern sauce Gaelyang-ganjang - 개량 간장 - of which there are also several types. Fermented soybean blocks - Meju, which are interspersed with various mushrooms, serve as the basis, but it is also fermented as in Japan.
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