Antiochian rite

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Altar in the style of the West Syrian liturgy (St. Thomas Church, North Paravur, Kerala , India)

The Antiochian Rite is traditionally celebrated in the Greek and Syrian languages ​​of the ancient church patriarchate Antioch and is now practiced in its Syrian successor churches : Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch (including its Indian portion), Syrian Maronite Church of Antioch , Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church , Syrian Catholic Church, and Malankar Catholic Church .

In contrast, the Rũm Orthodox Church , ie the Patriarchate of Antioch of the Chalcedonians (" Melkites "), has almost completely given up the Antiochene rite in favor of the Byzantine (= Constantinople) rite . Admittedly, this was primarily celebrated in the Syrian language at first, and then almost exclusively in Arabic in modern times.

Jerusalem (until the middle of the 5th century part of the Patriarchate of Antioch) held a special position as the “Holy City” , whose ancient church (“pre-Byzantine”) order of worship is known as the Old Jerusalem Liturgy .

West Syrian liturgies

The Antiochian Rite in the Syrian language has been subdivided into several Western Syrian liturgies . In addition to the divine service of the Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate ("Jacobites"), these are the rite of Tagrit (the Maphrianate ), the Malankar liturgy (among the modern Thomas Christians ) and the Maronite liturgy in the post-late antique phase of their development.

The West Syrian liturgies , together with the different East Syrian rite, form the divine service of Syrian Christianity .

In liturgical literature, the Western Syrian liturgies are often treated together and comparatively. Studies of the Malankar liturgy always deal with the Antiochene rite.

Liturgical history

The most important sources for the Antiochene liturgy of late antiquity are the church order known as the Apostolic Constitutions and the writings of John Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia .

The style-forming development center of the Antiochene Rite of the Chalcedonians ("Melkites") was the Patriarchal Cathedral in Antioch, dedicated to the Apostle Peter, also known as the "Church of Cassianus". Medieval testimony of their liturgy is the Syro- Melkite Codex Vat. Syr. 21 v. J. 1041.

The patriarchs of the Syriac Orthodox Church ("Jacobites") resided in various monasteries outside the city of Antioch, often in the convent from which they themselves came. Therefore, this church lacks a center that dominates the development of liturgical history. A distinction can be made in the Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate between two jurisdictions with different worship practices: (1) the area under the patriarch in the former Roman Empire, (2) the Maphrian churches in the east of the former imperial borders ("Rite of Tagrit"). What they have in common is Syriac as the language of worship. Some of the texts used are translations from the Greek.

The Maronite liturgy developed in the following epochs:

  • From the founding of the church in the 7th century to the encounter with the Roman Catholic crusaders in the 13th century.
  • From the 13th century to the synods at the end of the 16th century.
  • From the 16th to the liturgical reforms of Patriarch Stephanus Duwaihi († 1704) and the Lebanese Synod in 1736.
  • From the 18th century to the present.

A characteristic liturgical device of these services is the rhipidion with bells, used acoustically and visually at the most solemn moments .

Interior view of the church of the Syrian Orthodox St. Mark's Monastery, Jerusalem, around 1900

They celebrate

1. General
  • Massey H. Shepherd, Jr .: Formation and Influence of the Antiochene Liturgy . In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers 15 (1961) 23-44.
  • William Macomber: A Theory of the Origins of the Syrian, Maronite and Chaldean Rites . In: Orientalia Christiana Periodica 39 (1973) 235-242.
  • Heinrich Husmann: An old oriental Christian liturgy: old Syriac-Melkite . In: Orientalia Christiana Periodica 42 (1976) 156-196.
  • Stefano Rosso: Il Rito siro-antiocheno. Sacramenti e Sacramentali, Tempi e Feste, Libri Liturgici. Libreria Ed. Vaticana, Roma 2018. ISBN 978-88-266-0191-5 .
  • Pierre Dib: Etude sur la liturgie maronite . Lethielleux, Paris 1919.
  • Michel Hayek: Liturgy Maronite . Mame. Tours 1964.
  • Aelred Cody: L'eucharistie et les heures canoniales chez les Syriens jacobites. Une description des cérémonies . In: L'Orient Syrien 12 (1967) 55-81. 151-186; ders .: L'office divin chez les Syriens jacobites, leurs Eucharisties épiscopales et leur rite de pénitence. Descriptions des cérémonies, avec notes historiques . In: Proche-Orient Chrétien 19 (1969) 293-319.
2nd Eucharist
West Syrian Eucharist

The traditional Eucharistic form of the Antiochene Rite is the St. James liturgy . It is used in both denominations, but with some differences in the process. A special characteristic of the Syrian Orthodox liturgy to use a variety to choose asked Prayers ; a total of more than seventy forms are available.

  • Order of divine sacrifice according to the rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch. Compiled by order of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch in Germany, translated from Syriac, expanded to include an appendix on confession and the Eucharist and ed. by Josef Önder. 3rd, exp. Edition Puthencruz - India: Julius Yeshu Çiçek Verlag 2009.
  • Givergi's Paniker : The Holy Qurbono in the Syro-Malankara Church , edited by Thomas Paniker (with author's résumé), SB Press Trivandrum, 1991; Complete scan of the book (English)
  • Michel Hayek: Liturgy Maronite. Histoire et textes eucharistiques . Mame, Tours 1964.
  • P. Gemayel: Avant Fair Maronite. Histoire et structure . Pont. Is. Orient., Roma 1965. ( Online )
  • Andreas Heinz : Holy Mass according to the rite of the Syrian-Maronite Church (Sophia 28). Paulinus, Trier 1996. ISBN 3-7902-1451-5 .
3. Sacraments and casuals
3.1. Initiation (baptism), consecration of the Myron

Characteristic of the tradition native to Syria is the importance that is assigned to the water rite of anointing with holy oil, which initially precedes the immersion bath, and from the end of the 4th century it also follows it (postbaptismal chrismation ).

The individual denominations with the Antiochene Rite use different initiation orders with the same basic structure and texts generally translated from the Greek:

In addition to the detailed normal form, each group has a short version of the baptismal ordinances for those baptized in mortal danger .

In Syrian literature there are a number of commentaries on the baptismal liturgy, for example by Jacob von Edessa , George the Arab Bishop, Moses Bar-Kepha , Dionysius bar Salibi , and Gregorius Bar-Hebraeus .

  • Sebastian P. Brock: Syrian baptismal rites In: Concilium. Internationale Zeitschrift für Theologie Vol. 15 (1979) pp. 132–135 (basic knowledge);
  • ders., Studies in the Early History of the Syrian Orthodox Baptismal Liturgy . In: Journal of Theological Studies NS 23 (1972) 16–64 (fundamental in liturgical science);
  • ders .: The consecration of the water in the oldest manuscripts of the Syrian Orthodox Baptismal Liturgy . In: Orientalia Christiana Periodia 37 (1971) 317-332.
  • ders .: The Holy Spirit in the Syrian Baptismal Tradition . 3. Edition. Gorgias, Piscataway, NJ 2008.
  • A. Mouhanna: Les rites de l'initiation dans l'Église maronite (Orientalia Christiana Analecta 212). Pont. Is. Orient., Roma 1980.
  • Baby Varghese: Studies in the West Syrian Liturgy of the Consecration of Holy Myron . In: The Harp. A Review of Syriac and Oriental Ecumenical Studies Vol. 6 (1993) pp. 65-73.
  • The Consecration of Holy Myron, according to the Rite of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (Damascus 2015)

3.2. Reconciliation (buses)

  • W. de Vries: Confession and penance practice among East and West Syrians . In: Ostkirchliche Studien 20 (1971) 273-279.
  • Brian Gogan: Penance Rites of the West Syrian Liturgy . In: Irish Theological Quarterly 42 (1975) 182-196.

3.3. Anointing of the sick

  • Ziad Sacre: Le Rite de la lampe et l'onction des malades dans l'Eglise maronite . ANRT, Villeneuve d'Ascq 1998. ISBN 2-284-00475-X

3.4. Marriage

  • F. Van de Paverd: Forme celebrative del matrimonio nelle Chiese orientali . In: La celebrazione del matrimonio cristiano. Atti della V settimana dei professori italiani di Liturgia. EDB, Bologna 1977, 11-116. Without ISBN.
  • Sebastian P. Brock: The Earliest Texts of the Syrian Orthodox Marriage Rite . In: Orientalia Christiana Periodica 78 (2012) 335-392.
  • Johannes Madey: Tekso d-zuwogo, or the order of the coronation. The service of sanctifying the sacrament of marriage according to the rite of the Syro-Antiochene Church . Kottayam 1995. ( online )
  • The Mystery of Crowning According to the Maronite Antiochene Church . Diocese of Saint Maron, Washington 1985. Without ISBN.

3.5. Ordinations

  • B. de Smet: Le rituel du sacre des évêques et des patriarches dans l'église syrienne d'Antioche , In: L'Orient Syrien 8 (1963) 165-212.
  • Najem Chahwa: L'Ordination diaconale dans l'église Maronite . PUSEK, Kaslik 2008. ISBN 978-9953-491-17-2 .

3.6. Funeral service

  • Jacques Azzi: Office des funérailles et théologie de la mort d'après le manuscrit Vat. Syr. 59 . In: Proche-Orient Chrétien 23 (1973) 284-321.
  • Johannes Madey: Tekso d-'Ufoyo d-Annide. The order of the burial of the deceased according to the rite of the Syro-Antiochene Church (and the Malankar Church) . Kottayam - Paderborn: St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute Publ - Verl. Ostkirchendienst, 1995. ( online )

3.7. Consecration

4. Times of the day
  • Anton Baumstark : The "Syrian-Antiochian" holiday brevier . In: Katholik 3. Episode 26 (1902) 401-427.538-550; 27 (1903) 43–54 (celebration of the times of the day on holiday days (“working days”), especially Vespers, night office and Matins, with numerous translation samples).
  • Jean Tabet: L'Office Commun Maronite. Étude du Lilyô et du Safrô . USEK, Kaslik 1972.
5th liturgical year
  • Johannes Madey: Teḵso d-Madedono according to the rite of the Syro-Antiochian Church (and the Malankarian Church): processions and blessings on festivals of the church year and on special occasions . Paderborn [u. a.]: Verl. Ostkirchendienst, 1997. ( Online )
  • Andreas Heinz: Feasts and celebrations in the church year according to the rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch (Mʼadʼdono) (Sophia 31). Paulinus, Trier 1998.
  • Anton Baumstark: Festival breviary and church year of the Syrian Jacobites (studies on the history and culture of antiquity 3, 3–5). Paderborn 1910. ISBN 978-1-61719-235-7 (reprint).
  • Stephen Plathottathil: Themes of Incarnation in the Sedre fo the Period of Suboro-Yaldo According to the Mosul Fenqitho . SEERI, Kottayam 2009.
  • Varghese Varghese: Tekso d-Denho in the West Syrian Tradition. A Study of the Feast of Epiphany in the Malankara Orthodox Church . Diss. Kottayam 2011. ( Online )
  • G. Khouri-Sarkis - A. du Boullay: La bénédiction de l'eau, la nuit de l'Épiphanie, dans le rite syrien d'Antioche . In: L'Orient Syrien 4 (1959) 211-232.
  • Jean-Marie Sauget: Bénédiction de l'eau dans la nuit de l'Épiphanie selon l'ancienne tradition de l'Église maronite . In: L'Orient Syrien 4 (1959) 319–378 (according to Codex Vat. Syr. 312 from 1745)
  • ders .: Premières recherches sur l'origine et les caractéristiques des synaxaires melkites (XIe – VIIe siècles) (Subsidia Hagiographica 45). Bollandistes, Bruxelles 1969 (Holy Festival).
  • Rachid Abi-Khalil: L'office de la Semaine Sainte ou "Ktobo d-Hacho" selon la tradition de l'Église maronite . Diss. Paris 1994. SBB : 1 F 16216.
  • M. Hadaya: L'Office maronite du Samedi Saint . USEK, Kaslik 1995.
  • Moussa El-Hage: Le lectionnaire maronite: période de la Pentecôte et de la croix . Univ. Antonine, Baabda 2005.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Robert F. Taft: The Liturgy of the Hours in East and West. Liturgical Press, 1986, ISBN 9780814614051 , p. 239. Restricted preview in Google book search
  2. ^ Frans van de Paverd: On the history of the mass liturgy in Antiocheia and Constantinople towards the end of the fourth century. Analysis of the sources in John Chrysostomos [Orientalia Christiana Analecta 187]. Pont. Inst. Orient. Stud., Roma 1970, pp. 3-406; John Chrysostom: Catecheses baptismales / baptismal catechesis . Trans. U. a. by Rainer Kaczynski. Volume 1. Herder, Freiburg i. Br. 1992, pp. 73–91 (“The Christian Initiation in Antioch”).
  3. ^ Hans Lietzmann: The liturgy of Theodor von Mopsuestia . In: Meeting reports of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Phil.-hist. Kl. 23 (1933) 915-936.
  4. List: Sebastian Brock: Two recent editions of Syrian Orthodox Anaphoras . In: Ephemerides Liturgicae 102 (1988) 436-445. Now to be added by Roger-Youssef Akhrass, Les trois anaphores attribuées à Philoxène de Mabboug. Introduction, texte critique et traduction, in: Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Journal 54 (2016) 65–192.
  5. Cf. G. Khouri-Sarkis: L'Anaphore syriaque de saint Jacques . In: L'Orient Syrien 4 (1959) 385–448 (introduction, translation with explanations).
  6. Taksā da-ʾmādā quaddīšā. The sacrament of the holy Baptism according to the ancient rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch , transl. from the original Syriac by Murad Saliba Barsom. Ed. and publ. by Athanasius Yeshue Samuel . [Jounieh] 1974 (based on the edition published in Homs in 1950 by Ignatius Ephräm I. Barsum ). Historically important minor form: Sebastian Brock: A New Syriac Baptismal Ordo Attributed to Timothy of Alexandria . In: Le Muséon 83 (1970) 367-431.
  7. A. Mouhanna: Les rites de l'initiation dans l'Église maronite (Orientalia Christiana Analecta 212). Pont. Is. Orient., Roma 1980.
  8. Documented by hand from 11th century; only print [Syriac a. lat.]: JA Assemani: Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae Universae . Vol. 3. Roma 1750, 201–237 based on a more recent manuscript.
  9. ^ Sebastian P. Brock: A short Melkite baptismal service in Syriac . In: Parole de l'Orient 3 (1972) 119-130.
  10. C. Kayser: Jacob's canons of Edessa . Leipzig 1886, 121f.
  11. ^ HW Codrington: Two commentaries on the Jacobite liturgy . London 1913, 11-15.
  12. The declaration of baptism of Moses bar Kepha. For the first time ed. trans. u. ext. by Ludwig Haggenmüller. Vienna, Diss. Phil. (mach.) Vienna 1943; Odo Haggenmüller OSB: Holy Birth of God: an old Syrian treatise on baptism . Beuroner Kunstverlag, Beuron 1947 (only German translation).
  13. Codex Mingana Syr. 215 fol. 15b-24b.
  14. R. Kohlhaas: Jacobite Sacraments Theology in the 13th Century . Aschendorff, Münster 1959.