The Basionym (from ancient Greek βάσις básis "basis" and ὄνυμα ónyma "name"; meaning: "original name") is a term of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) . A basionym is the synonym of a valid scientific name from which it is derived. A basionym can be the first valid scientific name under which a taxon has been described, but this is not always the case (see examples ). In bacteriology , this case is called a basonym .
According to the rules of the ICBN, the author (more precisely: his author's abbreviation ) of the basionym is listed in round brackets after the new name of the taxon when the systematic classification of the described taxon is changed, followed by the author of the new, correct name. This method of double quoting the first author and the current author is used in botany for both transmission, e.g. B. used a species in another genus , as well as for rank changes in which, for example, a taxon originally described as a subspecies is assigned species status or vice versa. The described practice makes it possible, based on the current name, to trace a historical combination of names despite renaming or transferring.
Similar rules apply to the nomenclature of bacteria . According to the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB, International Code of the Nomenclature of Bacteria , Bacteriological Code ) the author or authors and the year of publication of the basonym are listed in parentheses after the new name of the taxon, followed by the author or the authors with the year of the recognition of the new name. In bacteriology no author abbreviations are used, but the surname is mentioned, this applies to one or two authors. If several scientists were involved in the description, only one name and the abbreviation et al. used. The procedure is also provided here for the transfer (rules 34a and 34b) and for a change of rank (rule 34c, concerns the ranks from subspecies to genus).
In the zoological nomenclature, however, the term basionym is not used. He corresponds there approximately to the term "original spelling" ( original spelling ).
Change of rank ( status novus ): The basionyma of Achillea millefolium L. subsp. sudetica (Opiz) Achillea sudetica Opiz is white . This taxon was initially named by PM Opiz ; White degraded it to a subspecies and gave it the new name.
The basionym is not necessarily the oldest valid name. In 1753, Carl von Linné described the tree species Adenanthera falcataria L. (1753). Depending on the processor, the species is assigned to one of two different genera :
- When classified in the genus Paraserianthes , the correct name is Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) IC Nielsen ; Adenanthera falcataria L. (1753) is the basionyma.
- When classified in the genus Falcataria , the correct name is Falcataria moluccana ( Miq. ) Barneby & J. W. Grimes . In this case, Albizia moluccana is Miq. (1855) the associated basionym, without being the oldest valid name. The use of Falcataria falcataria is not permitted ( tautonym ).
Transfer of a species to another genus: A bacterium was described in 1985 by Fabienne Bonjour and Michel Aragno as a representative of the genus Bacillus and named Bacillus tusciae . Hans-Peter Klenk and other scientists propose the transfer to a newly established genus Kyrpidia and recognize it in 2012.
- Kyrpidia tusciae (Bonjour & Aragno 1985) Klenk et al. 2012, comb. nov. is therefore the valid name; the basonym is Bacillus tusciae Bonjour & Aragno 1985
Change of rank: E. Tsakalidou and other scientists described a bacterium as a representative of the genus Streptomyces in 1998 and named it Streptomyces macedonicus . Later investigations by L. Schlegel and colleagues show that the bacterium is very similar to the species Streptomyces gallolyticus , but shows enough differences that it is not considered identical. They therefore propose the establishment of subspecies of S. gallolyticus , which will be recognized in 2003.
- Streptomyces gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus (Tsakalidou et al. 1998) Schlegel et al. 2003, comb. nov. is therefore the valid name; the basonym is Streptomyces macedonicus Tsakalidou et al. 1998
- Gerhard Wagenitz : Dictionary of botany. Morphology, anatomy, taxonomy, evolution. The terms in their historical context. G. Fischer, Jena a. a. 1996, ISBN 3-437-35180-X , p. 53, article "Basionym".
- Gerhard Wagenitz: Dictionary of botany. Morphology, anatomy, taxonomy, evolution. The terms in their historical context. G. Fischer, Jena a. a. 1996, ISBN 3-437-35180-X , p. 306, article "Protonym".
- SP Lapage, PHA Sneath, EF Lessel, VBD Skerman, HPR Seeliger, WA Clark (eds.): International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria - Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision . ASM Press, Washington (DC), USA 1992, ISBN 1-55581-039-X ( NCBI Bookshelf ).
- International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Art. 32. Original spellings