As cross-gender (of English gender "social gender" as: "the opposite sex accordingly") on the one hand refers to those forms and practices in which people not according to their socio-culturally influenced gender roles behave. On the other hand, the term can mean communication between partners of different sexes.
Assumption of the other gender role
Cross-gendering can be reflected in clothing or behavior that is culturally ascribed to the opposite sex ( cross-dressing ). Put simply, these are men who dress and / or behave feminine according to the applicable gender order - or, conversely, women who appear masculine (see also differences between gender habitus and gender role ). Accepting the opposite sex can be purely playful, but it can also be an expression of a transgender or transsexual identity.
Persons with a cross-gender - gender identity may be the same like sexual orientation have as those (who feel in accordance with their biological sex cisgender ) and about gay , bisexual , asexual or heterosexual be predisposed. However, if they feel attracted to the same biological sex, those affected often do not perceive this as a homosexual tendency, as they feel they belong to the opposite sex.
Cross-gender as a form of communication
With cross-gender can also communication processes are referred to, in which the partners involved different sexes have about the cross-gender mentoring . Here people of the opposite sex are specifically chosen in order to ensure understanding skills for specifically “female” or “male” worlds, behaviors and problems. The opposite is equal gender mentoring: advice from the same sex.
Cross-gender in ballroom dancing
In queer tango , traditional gender role behavior is reversed and changed at will: women lead, men follow. Men dance the traditional female movement patterns and women learn to adapt to the conventionally male movement repertoire. In queer tango dancing beyond gender boundaries, woman-man, woman-woman, man-man and traditional man-woman dance couples are formed with frequent roles reversal.
Grammatical cross-gender in Latin American bolero
In the sung Latin American bolero there is the element of a so-called "grammatical cross-gender presentation", made possible by a peculiarity of the Spanish language: In Spanish, morphemes mark the gender of the speaker - depending on whether a woman or a man sings the same bolero, these morphemes would have to be adapted specifically for the sexes. Some bolero singers consciously do not adapt these morphemes to be heterosexual , but rather sing from the perspective of the opposite sex. Roberto Strongman calls this “Bolereo” style queering grammatical gender .
Cross-gender in film and literature
- 1982: Tootsie , American travesty comedy directed by Sydney Pollack , with Dustin Hoffman
- 2005: Breakfast on Pluto , independent film directed by Neil Jordan , with Cillian Murphy
- Magali Saikin: Tango and Gender: Identities and Gender Roles in Argentine Tango. Butterfly, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-89657-611-9 .
- Clare L. Taylor: Women, writing, and fetishism, 1890-1950: female cross-gendering. Oxford University Press, New York 2003, ISBN 0-19-924410-3 (English; excerpt from Google book search).
- Roberto Strongman: The Latin America Queer Aesthetics of El Bolereo. In: Canadian Journal of Latin America and Caribbean Studies / Revue canadienne des études latino-américaines et caraïbes. Volume 32, No. 64, 2007, p. 52 (English; full text on thefreelibrary.com ).